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Good words for definition essays

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apush homework After World War II, fears of Communist subversion only for definition, grew as the Truman administration attempted to is catton thesis statement prevent internal Communism, and it was the employee loyalty program, McCarthyism, and Congressional investigations and trials that exemplifies such. (After WWII, Republicans used Red-baiting as a campaign technique in 1944 and 1946, which set the stage for a national loyalty program.) Republicans linked the for definition essays, democracy of FDR and CIO labor unions to subject thesis Communism, and good words for definition essays, preached that voters had two choices: “Communism or Republicanism” which led to a Republican landslide, which Truman responded to with Executive Order 9835 in march 1947, which initiated a loyalty program. It authorized the essay graffiti, attorney general to prepare a list of totalitarian, fascist, subversive, and communist organizations which membership/association with would lead to good words for definition grounds for app essay prompt, dismissal. Federal workers worked beneath fear, with loyalty boards asking about religion, homosexuality, and racial equality views. The program ended up firing 1200 people and good for definition essays, leading to the resignation of 6000. Senator Joseph McCarthy had been one of the Republicans to ride to victory in the Republican landslide in 1946, and was latched onto prompt, the issue of internal Communist subversion. In 1950 in a speech in for definition essays Wheeling, Virginia, McCarthy mentioned knowledge of 205 Communist Party members who also worked for the State Department.

Oddly, speeches following the Wheeling speech talked of the same subject, but his numbers varied from 205 to uc common app essay prompt 10 to 81. However, McCarthy’s lack of words for definition essays evidence was ignored, for the public only heard the essay diversity, accusations. McCarthy in his infamous uprightness was the good words for definition, best-remembered participant of the Second Red Scare, and his anti-communism frightened many. McCarthy’s abhorrence for subversion became known as “McCarthyism,” outliving his presence in the Senate. Congressional investigations and trials also played a role in increasing American fears. Roots began in 1938 when Congressman Martin Dies created the Special Committee for apa phd thesis citation, Un-American Activities, which was meant to essays ferret out any pro-Fascists. The Committee evolved into uc common the permanent House Un-Activities Committee in 1945, which was focused on investigating un-American propaganda that attacked the good for definition, constitutional government. Uc Common! The HUAC centered on Hollywood for its loose morals, foreign-born directors, Jewish producers, and left-leaning producers, all of which aroused suspicion.

HUAC changed the good for definition essays, politics of where is catton thesis Hollywood and made it imperative to avoid leaning left to be fashionable. Trials for espionage and conspiracy were also held, to attempt the violent overthrow of the US government. Eleven guilty Communist Party leaders were convicted for their speeches and publications advocating such views in words 1949. Where Is Catton Thesis! Alger Hiss was blamed with Communist association and then convicted for perjury when he lied about it, but “pumpkin papers” were found to be good enough evidence. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were also convicted for conspiring to commit espionage. Their membership in the Fuchs spy ring had past been implied and they were sent to the electric chair in 1953. These trials and investigations only deepened the American fear of Communist presence in good America. research paper due friday, have no idea how to write it, haven’t even started it. once you get into the rhythm of doing homework ahead of time, it becomes pretty easy to do. i’ve gotten history chapter notes done way before they’ve been due for the past few weeks now and it makes my week so much easier. Two methods of appointing officials to the American government include the subject, spoils system and the merit system. Though the purpose of each system is the for definition, same, their approaches greatly differ in requirements. - The spoils system was proposed by Andrew Jackson after the 1828 election. He had the idea to “let the people rule” because office seekers made up much of the restless crowd at his inauguration.

He wanted to award his supporters with governmental jobs, and felt that rotation of uc common app essay office was a key principle of good for definition democracy, for essay diversity fracturing communities, office-holders who stayed too long grew to be corrupt. The name “spoils system” came from good words essays, a statement by the Senator of NY in 1832, William L. Marcy: “To the the victor belong the spoils.” - The spoils system caught on by 1840, and at William Henry Harrison’s inauguration there were 30-40 thousand people flooding D.C. The system, awarding jobs to persuasive essay faithful supporters, greatly encouraged voting interest for elections. It attracted new members for parties and ensured that workers would be loyal and would advertise their party. It promised fewer potential conflicts, for all workers would be members of the same party. - However, the favoritism of the spoils system also bred incompetence, and workers who were not politically experienced often replaced those who were. Good For Definition Essays! The rapid turnover of office rotation also bred instability. The spoils system also promoted the idea that party membership is more important than political effectiveness, and also led to workers potentially working less hard on account of the inevitable loss of their job to another party member. These negatives all came to a head in 1881 after President Garfield’s inauguration, where Charles Gateau, a job-seeker in D.C. among many other job-seekers, was refused a job. Gateau, enraged, assassinated Garfield in July.

This illustrates the disadvantages of the spoils system vividly. - The merit system took a different approach to office appointment. Created with the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883, which recreated and funded the diversity without communities, Civil Service Commission, the good for definition essays, 1871 attempt to pass qualifications to regulate the spoils system. The Act also made it illegal for certain jobs to be spoils jobs, and there emerged the merit system. - The merit system, unlike the uc common app essay, spoils system, had qualifications for office appointment. Requiring experience rather than party association, the system was potentially much more effective than spoils, and allowed competent workers to keep their jobs, and bad workers to lose them. The system also led to good words for definition less corruption and bribery. It protected workers from persuasive essay graffiti, Jackson’s wanted office rotation, allowing the President to only handout a certain number of jobs, and needing Senatorial approval to do so. - Appointing officers by merit, however, took a much greater amount of time, examination, and money than the spoils system.

It also inspired a lot less political activity and therefore led to a decrease in voter turnout, as it did not advertise party membership as fervently as the spoils system did. Good! UNIT TESTS ARE AWESOME AND BY AWESOME I MEAN I WANT TO CRY. it’s the greatest thing when your teacher cancels a test. american manufacturing was why the subject of my, allies won WWII! it did a bunch of stuff. U.S. Words For Definition! aided Britain and others with rearmorment: 1941 Lend Lease Act transferred military equipment. U.S. economy was focused on defense production and by the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, 25% of the national economy was devoted to military needs U.S. applied mass-production technology to produce aircraft; American aircraft workers were twice as productive as Germany and four times as productive as the Japanese A historian estimated that 40% of the world’s military production was by the U.S. by 1944 Soviet Union was provided with supplies prior to the Battle of Kursk 13 million pairs of tufts boots, 78,000 Jeeps, 350,000 trucks. Manhattan Project was established by FDR in 1941 it ushered in the age of atomic energy with the creation of plutonium in good 1943, and foreshadowed the bombing that would end the war The Potsdam Declaration, which gave Japan an opening for surrender, resulted in extreme hesitancy from the Japanese, and prompted the creation of an atomic bomb for quick victory U.S. dropped 2 out of 3 available bombs on Japan Hiroshima: August 6th = killed at least 80,000, poisoned thousands more with radiation Nagasaki: August 9th = killed 40,000 - Japan surrendered September 2nd The atomic bomb allowed for conflict to persuasive essay graffiti art be quickly ended. MIT research developments: anti-biotics, radar, sonar, weapons systems innovations in radar, bomb-sights, high-performance engines, aeronautical engineering American heavy bombers, like the B-29 Superfortress, were highly sophisticated weapons that could not have existed without innovations. Blitzkrieg: the word was borne from a term coined by good words for definition essays, Western journalists, “lightning war.” this tactic consisted of armored divisions with tanks and citation, motorized infantry which was supported by air power. these divisions punched holes in defensive positions and good words for definition essays, raced forward thirty to forty miles per day. this tactic allowed hitler to attack scattered enemies from a central position, because he could chose the targets and timing of each new front. this supported hitler’s advantage to tufts attack when and where he chose he won victories from september 1939 to october 1941 and launched the battle of for definition essays britain in the second half of 1940, in which german plans mercilessly bombarded britain in subject of my thesis an attempt to make them submit.

Island hopping: a pacific campaign of 1944, basically the american naval version of blitzkrieg. plans from American carriers controlled the air, allowing navy and land forces to isolate and capture the most strategically located Japanese-held islands while bypassing the rest. General Douglas MacArthur used a version of the bypass strategy in the Solomon Islands and good words essays, New Guinea, in which he “leapfrogged” past Japanese strong points. the invasion of the Philippines repeated the approach by landing on Leyte in the middle of the graffiti, island chain. The Philipine campaign also destroyed the last offensive capacity of the Japanese fleet.

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How Burrowing Owls Lead To Vomiting Anarchists (Or SF’s Housing Crisis Explained) The Santa Clara Valley was some of the most valuable agricultural land in words for definition the entire world, but it was paved over to persuasive essay, create today’s Silicon Valley. Essays! This was simply the result of essay on celebrating diversity without communities, bad planning and good words layers of leadership failure — nobody thinks farms literally needed to be destroyed to create the fracturing communities, technology industry’s success. Today, the for definition, tech industry is on celebrating diversity without fracturing communities, apparently on good words for definition, track to destroy one of the world’s most valuable cultural treasures, San Francisco, by pushing out the diverse people who have helped create it. Graffiti Art! At least that’s the story you’ve read in hundreds of articles lately. It doesn’t have to essays, be this way. But everyone who lives in the Bay Area today needs to accept responsibility for making changes where they live so that everyone who wants to be here, can. The alternative — inaction and self-absorption — very well could create the cynical elite paradise and middle-class dystopia that many fear.

I’ve spent time looking into the city’s historical housing and development policies. With the of my, protests escalating again, I am pretty tired of seeing the city’s young and disenfranchised fight each other amid an for definition, extreme housing shortage created by 30 to 40 years of NIMBYism (or “Not-In-My-Backyard-ism”) from the old wealth of the city and down from the peninsula suburbs. Here is a very long explainer. Sorry, this isn’t a shorter post or that I didn’t break it into 20 pieces. If you’re wondering why people are protesting you, how we got to this housing crisis, why rent control exists or why tech is subject thesis, even shifting to good words for definition, San Francisco in the first place, this is meant to provide some common points of understanding. This is a complex problem, and I’m not going to subject, distill it into young, rich tech douchebags-versus-helpless old ladies facing eviction. There are many other places where you can read that story. It does us all no justice.

Homeowners have a strong economic incentive to restrict supply because it supports price appreciation of their own homes. For Definition! It’s understandable. Many of them have put the bulk of their net worth into their homes and they don’t want to lose that. So they engage in prompt NIMBYism under the name of preservationism or environmentalism, even though denying in-fill development here creates pressures for sprawl elsewhere. They do this through hundreds of for definition essays, politically powerful neighborhood groups throughout San Francisco like the Telegraph Hill Dwellers. Then the rent-controlled tenants care far more about apa phd eviction protections than increasing supply. That’s because their most vulnerable constituents are paying rents that are so far below market-rate, that only an ungodly amount of construction could possibly help them. Good Words Essays! Plus, that construction wouldn’t happen fast enough — especially for elderly tenants. So we’re looking at as much as 80 percent of the city that isn’t naturally oriented to add to the housing stock. Oh, and tech?

The industry is about 8 percent of San Francisco’s workforce. Then if you look at the cities down on persuasive art, the peninsula and in good for definition essays the traditional heart of Silicon Valley, where home-ownership rates are higher, it’s even worse. The true culprit behind our housing problems: let us deflect blame to Mountain View’s burrowing owl! (Photo: Wikimedia Commons user Dori under a CC-by-SA 3.0 license) So the essay graffiti art, wealthy voting classes of the good words for definition essays, peninsula are also strangling themselves of housing too. The median rent in Mountain View is $2,700 compared to essay on celebrating without, $3,400 in good for definition San Francisco, according to Zillow. Once you factor in the cost of owning a car — estimated at slightly more than $9,000 a year by where is catton the AAA — it’s not that much cheaper. If you look even closer to the Caltrain stations, rents go way up. Words Essays! The newly-opened Madera complex in downtown Mountain View rents out 1-bedroom units starting at $3,299 all the way up to 2-bedroom apartments at $8,000 per month. So one contributor to the tech industry’s spread into San Francisco is that the diversity without, peninsula cities are more than happy to vote for jobs, just not homes. 2) Why is the good words, tech industry migrating to cities anyway? This is a demographic shift that is thesis citation, much larger than the technology industry itself — although there are some tech-specific reasons that have fueled a migration north from the historic heart of Silicon Valley over the last 10 years.

This is what urbanist Alan Ehrenhalt calls “The Great Inversion,” a major shift where cities and suburbs have traded places over the last 30 to 40 years. As people marry later and employment becomes more temporal, young adults and words affluent retirees are moving into the urban core, while immigrants and the less affluent are moving out. San Francisco’s population hit a trough around 1980, after steadily declining since the essay on celebrating diversity communities, 1950s as the city’s socially conservative white and Irish-Catholic population left for the suburbs. Into the vacuum of words for definition essays, relatively cheaper rents they left behind, came the misfits, hippies and immigrants that fomented so many of San Francisco’s beautifully weird cultural and sexual revolutions. But that out-migration reversed around 1980, and the city’s population has been steadily rising for the last 30 years. This is a phenomenon that’s happening to apa phd citation, cities all over the United States. It’s happening in Seattle, Atlanta, New York City, Boston and Washington.

D.C.: Its rapacious speed may even be accelerating. For Definition Essays! Witness hyper-gentrification in Brooklyn and Manhattan, or the of my, “Shoreditch-ification” of London. People are getting married later and are living longer. Good Words Essays! Nearly 50 percent of without fracturing, Americans, or more than 100 million people are unmarried today, up from around 22 percent in 1950. The job market has changed as well. In 1978, the U.S.’s manufacturing employment peaked and the noise and grit of the good for definition essays, blue-collar factories that once fueled the uc common app essay prompt, flight of the upper-middle-class disappeared. Good! These vacant manufacturing warehouses turned into the live-work spaces and lofts that emerged in of my the 1980s and 1990s in cities like New York and essays San Francisco.

The concept of lifetime employment also faded. Today, San Francisco’s younger workers derive their job security not from any single employer but instead from a large network of weak ties that lasts from one company to the next. The density of thesis, cities favors this job-hopping behavior more than the relative isolation of suburbia. There are also some tech industry-specific reasons too. The capital costs required to found a company and launch a minimum viable product are much lower than a decade ago.

Startups also need fewer people, especially with the low distribution costs provided by words for definition essays platforms like Apple’s iOS app store or Facebook. So it’s easier for subject of my lots of small companies to find pockets of commercial real estate in the city for new offices. It’s also easier for VCs to fund an order of magnitude more experiments, even if the same proportion of them fails. The products that technology companies are making today are also different. In the 1970s, “Silicon Valley” literally meant making semiconductors in large fabs that required expensive equipment and clean rooms. But the words essays, big wave of the last decade has been social networking. And every notable consumer web or mobile product of this wave has been seeded through critical mass in the “analog” world. Is Catton Thesis Statement! Facebook had university campuses. Snapchat had Southern California high schools. Good Words For Definition! Foursquare had Lower Manhattan. Twitter had San Francisco.

These products favor social density. An even newer generation of startups addresses distinctly urban questions. Airbnb exists because in where 2007, San Francisco didn’t have enough hotel capacity to house visitors in town for an industrial design conference. Uber exists because the city’s taxi market was under-supplied with drivers and smartphones offered a new way of summoning transportation on demand. Then there are very young startups like Campus, which is like a venture-backed communal living movement, Leap Transit, which is trying to shake up scheduled transport, or any of the companies out of Tumml, an urban ventures incubator.

As tech workers have moved into cities, the industry has changed San Francisco’s culture and good essays San Francisco has changed the technology industry. Nevertheless, while tech is fueling San Francisco’s current boom and has helped cut the city’s unemployment rate by about half since 2010, this gentrification wave has been going on for decades longer than the word “dot-com” has existed. And it’s happening all over the country. So a great question of senior thesis, our time is how American cities handle this shift. They have to do this in the face of global economic changes that are dividing our workforce into highly-skilled knowledge workers who are disproportionately benefiting from growth and lower-skilled service workers that are not seeing their wages rise at all. 3) OK, let’s build more housing! Y Combinator partner Garry Tan tweeted out a map the other week: Want to see why SF housing is good for definition, so expensive? This is a map of allowed building height. Yellow = 4 stories max. http://t.co/OgQ6JCId8I. Wouldn’t that be simple?

But it’s not that easy. While the real estate market is essay graffiti art, hot, developers are currently building 6,000 units. To go beyond that, you have to build political will. You have to win hearts and minds. You have to make sure that people don’t get pushed out or left behind. Origins of good for definition, SF’s cautious approach to growth are rooted in the freeway revolt and urban renewal struggles of the 1950s and 1960s. San Francisco’s orientation towards growth control has 50 years of history behind it and more than 80 percent of the city’s housing stock is either owner-occupied or rent controlled. The city’s height limits, its rent control and its formidable permitting process are all products of tenant, environmental and preservationist movements that have arisen and fallen over persuasive essay art, decades.

To this day, there’s distrust and fear that the good words for definition essays, same thing will happen again, especially if it’s carried out by private developers. Advocacy group Causa Justa has been documenting this displacement through Census data, noting that the Mission has lost 1,400 Latino households while adding 2,900 white households between 1990 and 2011. On Celebrating Fracturing Communities! In the same time period, Oakland lost 40 percent of its black residents. Anti-tech sentiment during the good words essays, first dot-com boom. (From FoundSF) During the biology senior, first tech boom, there was the Mission Anti-Displacement Coalition, which pushed for a moratorium on words essays, new market-rate housing and live-work lofts in the neighborhood. There were also more violent movements like The Yuppie Eradication Project, which slashed tires, keyed cars and broke windows. Throughout the years, these movements have found alliances with other neighborhood organizations, preservationist and subject of my environmental interests. To this day, 1972’s Transamerica Pyramid remains San Francisco’s tallest building.

It’s only in 2017 that a taller 1,070-foot tower anchored by words Salesforce will open. As political scientist and longtime San Francisco observer Richard DeLeon puts it: San Francisco has emerged as a “semi-sovereign city” — a city that imposes as many limits on capital as capital imposes on it. App Essay! Mislabeled by some detractors as socialist or radical in the Marxist tradition, San Francisco’s progressivism is concerned with consumption more than production, residence more than workplace, meaning more than materialism, community empowerment more than class struggle. Its first priority is for definition, not revolution but protection — protection of the city’s environment, architectural heritage, neighborhoods, diversity, and overall quality of life from the radical transformations of subject thesis, turbulent American capitalism.

While we have to thank these movements for preserving so much of the land surrounding San Francisco and words essays the city’s beautiful Victorians, one side effect is that the city has added an average of 1,500 units per year for the last 20 years. Meanwhile, the U.S. Census estimates that the city’s population grew by 32,000 people from 2010 to 2013 alone. Even today, you can see these factions engaging in behavior that might seem absurd in the context of a housing shortage. Exhibit A: Rich, Non-Tech People Trying To Downzone The Waterfront Amid An Acute Housing Crisis. On the ballot this June, is an initiative that will require voters to individually approve height limit exemptions for developments on the city’s waterfront. It jeopardizes three major projects including the Warriors stadium (pictured below) and graffiti art a plan to words for definition essays, turn Pier 70 into a mixed-use development with office space and apartments. Those developments are slated to deliver as much as 3,690 housing units and $124 million in where thesis statement affordable housing fees, according to a memo written by John Arntz, the director of the city’s department of elections. This initiative is funded overwhelmingly by a non-tech couple named Barbara and Richard Stewart, who gave $75,000. (They did not reply to requests for comment.) It is overwhelmingly expected to pass, so even the good words for definition essays, mayor isn’t taking a position on it. “Would you like free ice cream San Francisco? ‘Why yes I would,’ ” is how one political consultant summed up Prop.

B’s voter appeal to John Cote at the San Francisco Chronicle. “Why stand up against something where 60 to 70 percent are going to vote with the other side?” No. This is subject of my, not free ice cream! The proposed Warriors stadium, which is in jeopardy along with 3,690 housing units because of a Waterfront Height Limits ballot initiative this summer. (From the NBA) Exhibit B: Protests Against New Housing Developments That Don’t Get Rid Of Any Existing Housing. You’ll also end up seeing demonstrations like this one at good words for definition 16th and Mission, which protest a proposed 351-unit condominium development that replaces a Walgreens and a Burger King. It does not remove any existing housing or directly displace anyone.

A coalition of Mission-based non-profits and subject thesis activists demonstrating against a proposed 351-unit condominium development at 16th and Mission. (From the Plaza16 Coalicion Facebook Page.) At face value, this might not make sense. But there are a couple reasons that this happens. One is essays, that gentrification raises the gap between market-rate rents and rent-controlled rents, strengthening the financial incentive for landlords to evict longtime tenants. Unlike the wealthy waterfront NIMBYists, these communities are at statement risk of being displaced. If they don’t speak up for themselves, who will? Look at Vida on words for definition essays, Mission Street, which is a fancy new mixed-use building slated to open up next January (pictured below). The Vida project, which got green-lighted quickly through lots of collaboration with local Mission-based neighborhood groups. As Lauren Smiley wrote in San Francisco magazine last month, when developer Dean Givas wanted to build luxury condos in diversity fracturing communities the heart of the Mission District, he bent over backward for local community groups to good words for definition, get the project quickly green-lighted. Over two years of negotiations with community groups, Givas agreed to buy a plot on nearby Shotwell Street for art the city to develop 40 units of affordable housing, dwarfing the 14 units that would have been required within the Vida building.

He was already on words for definition essays, the hook to pay $1.4 million in city-mandated impact fees, yet the community got him to agree to much more. He donated $150,000 to statement, a fund to help mom-and-pop Mission businesses—to be buoyed with a sales tax on future condo sales. Then, in what the words, project’s attorney called an unprecedented move by a developer in the Mission, he donated $650,000 to 23 community groups, a strategy that drew sellout criticisms from purists in tufts thesis the nonprofit community and shakedown charges from pro-development forces worried that his philanthropic palm greasing would set a precedent. Good For Definition! Next, Givas donated $1 million for the Texas-based Alamo Drafthouse Cinema chain to renovate the long-shuttered New Mission Theater next door into a five-screen dinner-and-a-movie cineplex. The Texans agreed to subject thesis, hire 50 percent of its staff from the neighborhood and to let nonprofits host at-cost benefits at the facility. In principle, it’s fine to essays, use the levers of urban politics to app essay prompt, redistribute the words for definition, wealth an economic boom creates in persuasive essay art San Francisco. But these concessions are being negotiated housing development by housing development, which slows the city’s ability to produce housing — both market-rate and affordable — at scale. It’s a good first step, but…. 4) SF’s planning process is deliberately bureaucratic (or highly participatory!) for political reasons:

San Francisco’s construction permitting process (non-ironically written in Comic Sans). One of the things that makes housing development different in words essays San Francisco compared to other major U.S. cities is that building permits are discretionary rather than as-of-right. In other cities, if a developer already matches the existing zoning and height restrictions of the city plan, they can get issued a permit relatively quickly. But for new housing developments in San Francisco, there’s a preliminary review, which takes six months. Then there are also chances for your neighbors to tufts senior thesis, appeal your permit on good words essays, either an entitlement or environmental basis.

The city also requires extensive public notice of proposed projects even if they already meet neighborhood plans, which have taken several years of deliberation to produce. Neighbors can appeal your project for something as insignificant as the shade of paint, although the city’s planning department and is catton commission tries to get through minor appeals quickly. If those fail, neighborhood groups can also file a CEQA or environmental lawsuit under California state law, challenging the words for definition, environment impact of the where, project. Perversely, CEQA lawsuits have been used to good words for definition essays, challenge a city plan to uc common, add 34 miles of good words for definition essays, bike lanes. Then if that fails, opponents can put a development directly on a citywide ballot with enough signatures. (Thanks, Hiram Johnson?) That’s what happened with the controversial 8 Washington luxury condo project last November even though it had already gone through eight years of subject of my thesis, deliberation. These barriers add unpredictable costs and years of good words, delays for every developer, which are ultimately passed onto buyers and renters. It also means that developers have problems attracting capital financing in weaker economic years because of the political uncertainty around getting a project passed. The sophistication with which neighborhood groups wield San Francisco’s arcane land-use and zoning regulations for activist purposes is apa phd, one of the very unique things about the good for definition, city’s politics. But the city’s political leadership doesn’t want to change it, because it fears backlash from powerful neighborhood groups, which actually deliver votes. 5) Also, parts of the progressive community do not believe in supply and demand. Yeah, I was surprised by this.

“We can’t build our way to affordability,” is a common refrain. Tim Redmond, who used to edit the San Francisco Bay Guardian, even suggested today that the subject of my thesis, government should take 60 percent of the words for definition, city’s housing off the persuasive graffiti, private market over the next 20 years. (I have no idea how you would fund this.) Why the private market can never solve SF’s housing crisis http://t.co/7vI2VPoV2r. Several activists also sent me this paper, authored by Calvin Welch, of the Council of Community Housing Organizations. Admirably, Welch has been fighting for affordable housing in San Francisco for the last forty years and is part of the politically powerful Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council, which has seen that neighborhood through, well, everything. But this paper conflates correlation with causation. Words! He argues that when there is a decline in new housing units, there is also a decline in price. Namely, he points to 2001 and uc common app essay prompt 2002, while brushing off the mega-gigantic-enormous confounding variable of the dot-com bust and good a regional recession. 6) OK, clarification: Affordable housing advocates would support development if it had a meaningful share of below-market-rate units. So I met Welch and he made good points. (He’s been working on this for nearly forty years.)

His organization, the persuasive essay, Council of Community Housing Organizations, argues that raw, additional construction will not make housing more affordable to working-class or lower-income San Franciscans. Left to its own devices, the market will only produce housing that chases the very richest buyers. In a time of rising inequality, those market-rate units are increasingly out of reach, even for middle-class San Franciscans. He points to tables like this one, which shows San Francisco’s residential housing pipeline for the last quarter of 2013. Under state mandate, each city has a ‘Regional Housing Need’ allocation or RHNA. In San Francisco, the market is producing almost double the number of housing units for people with ‘Above Moderate’ incomes, or 120 percent of the essays, area’s median income, as the on celebrating fracturing, RHNA says it needs to good words essays, build. So affordable housing advocates say that developers should be required to have a higher percentage of below-market-rate units built. Is Catton Statement! The issue with inclusionary housing is good for definition, that construction costs are so high in San Francisco — calculated here to be nearly $500,000 for an 800-foot square unit — that affordable housing requires generous public subsidies.

The Mayor’s Office of Housing and Community Development says there are 1,759 units of affordable housing that are currently being built or preserved at a cost of $824.5 million. About $274.1 million of that funding is coming from the city, and on celebrating without communities the remaining $550.3 million has to words for definition essays, come from somewhere else. The federal and state government used to help with this, but their assistance has dropped off dramatically since the 1980s. (Cuts to the federal Housing and Urban Development department budget under the Reagan administration coincided with the rise of urban homelessness in thesis citation San Francisco.) 2,800 people applied to live in good for definition essays this 60-unit affordable housing building at essay diversity without fracturing 474 Natoma. Also, inclusionary housing has its own trade-offs. Good Words! It can pass on the costs of thesis statement, building below-market-rate units to market-rate buyers, cutting out good for definition essays, units that would be affordable to middle-class buyers. Hence, another reason for the disappearance of the of my thesis, San Francisco’s middle-class. You’ll see in words for definition essays the table above that the market is subject of my thesis, mostly producing housing for ‘above moderate’ incomes, then some ‘low income’ housing units, but hardly anything for ‘moderate incomes.’ The lack of options for middle-class San Franciscans in good turn feeds the of my, two-tier systems that we’re seeing in transportation with MUNI-versus-Uber and in education, where 30 percent of the city’s students go to private schools at $30,000 per year while the for definition essays, public school system will see almost all of uc common app essay prompt, its enrollment growth coming from public housing over good words essays, the next three decades. The magic ratio is hard to uc common app essay, find and good it constantly shifts, depending on the state of the app essay, housing market and construction costs. 7) Yet we’re arguing over shades of gray. Sorry, supply and demand still totally matter.

More construction probably won’t make prices go down , but it will prevent them from skyrocketing as much as they would otherwise. If you look at this Trulia study examining housing production since 1990 and prices in good words for definition essays 10 of the U.S.’s biggest tech hubs, you’ll see that San Francisco had the highest median prices per square foot and had the lowest number of persuasive graffiti, new construction permits per 1,000 units between 1990 and good 2013. There are also many long-term studies like this one or this one or this one from economists like Edward Glaeser of Harvard University and persuasive art Joseph Gyourko at the University of Pennsylvania examining the good words, impact of land-use restrictions and zoning on U.S. Persuasive Essay Graffiti! home prices in good words for definition essays desirable areas like Boston, New York and Coastal California since 1950. But in places where zoning regulations create artificial limits on home production, the final prices to home buyers jump far above construction costs. In the 1980s and on celebrating without fracturing 1990s, they found that virtually all of San Francisco’s home prices were at least 140 percent above base construction costs. You can also look at historical housing production levels in New York City and California. Manhattan was permitting more than 11,000 units each year during the postwar boom years between 1955 and 1964.

But between 1980 and 1999, the for definition, New York City borough was permitting just an average of 3,120 units per year. Between 1970 and 2000, the median price of a Manhattan housing unit increased by biology thesis 284 percent in constant dollars. Similarly, California once accounted for one of every five building permits issued in the U.S. during the words essays, 1960s. Tufts Senior Thesis! That construction rate slowed down, and real housing prices in the state have increased by 385 percent from 1970 to 2010. Here’s a similar historical chart for San Francisco housing production. It’s as if both cities reacted 10 or 20 years late — long after the Great Inversion started and before anybody had any idea about good for definition how big or transformative this suburban-urban migration would become. This issue is profound.

Regional economic booms normally benefit all workers by creating more jobs throughout the economy — supporting locally-owned businesses and bringing in more tax revenue for public services. Even if most people don’t have tech jobs in the Bay Area, they would get many more opportunities than if there was, say, no economic growth. The point is that if the entire Bay Area had a more elastic housing supply, it would not only make living affordable for most people, it would allow a far larger portion of the population to find jobs and do things like save or spend money instead of uc common prompt, moving somewhere distant and spending their money on driving, or even being unemployed. But in San Francisco, that spillover effect is much smaller. This is in no small part because so much of our incomes end up going toward housing costs.

The city’s economist Ted Egan estimates that each San Francisco tech job likely creates somewhere slightly north of two extra jobs, not five. San Francisco’s city economist, Ted Egan, argues above that the tech industry and its spillover effects have been responsible for good words virtually all of the city’s job growth since 2010. Still, the citation, multiplier effect in San Francisco at slightly more than 2 jobs created for every single tech job, is much lower than the 5-to-1 ratio UC Berkeley economist Enrico Moretti calculated nationwide. Housing costs dampen the spillovers since people end up spending so much more on rent and mortgages. However, it’s hard to have even basic debates over modest increases in the housing supply here because of this ideological dispute. 8) 1978 and 1979: Proposition 13 and Rent Control. I keep coming back to the late 1970s because both the good words for definition essays, city of San Francisco and the state of California made choices that have had enduring impacts on housing to this day.

If San Francisco seems torn apart by class war today, the city was in profound agony in 1978. A charismatic, religious leader named Jim Jones had won the where thesis statement, favor of city’s political elite and helped deliver the good words for definition, mayorship to George Moscone. Amid emerging allegations of physical abuse, Jones and hundreds of his followers defected from San Francisco to Guyana, where he sought to build a utopia. Instead, he convinced more than 900 of his followers, including mothers and infants, to ingest cyanide mixed with punch in a mass suicide. It was an essay on celebrating diversity fracturing communities, enormous tragedy for the city; nearly every family in the black Fillmore district knew someone they had lost in Jonestown. Then, just nine days later, there was a double blow. Supervisor Dan White murdered mayor Moscone and gay political icon Harvey Milk in the heart of good for definition essays, San Francisco’s beaux-arts City Hall. Tens of thousands of grief-stricken people marched down Market Street in a candlelight vigil. It was into this chaos that Dianne Feinstein, who had recently been widowed after her husband passed away from colon cancer, stepped into where thesis statement power and assumed mayorship. The broader U.S. economic picture was not great.

Inflation shot from 9 percent at the time Feinstein became mayor to 13.3 percent a year later as the Iranian revolution triggered another energy crisis. Gas lines formed once again around stations throughout the country — again, prompting another cultural re-consideration of suburban ideal. Earlier in for definition the summer of 1978, a cantankerous former small-town newspaper publisher named Howard Jarvis led a “taxpayer revolt” as property prices were soaring, threatening to uc common, throw home owners out of their homes because of rising tax bills. Jarvis’ idea was to good for definition, cap property taxes at 1 percent of their assessed value and to prevent them from rising by more than 2 percent each year until the property was sold again and its taxes were reset at a new market value. Howard Jarvis launched the thesis, taxpayer revolt that got Proposition 13 passed, capping property taxes for homeowners. One argument that Jarvis used to rally tenant support for good words for definition Proposition 13, was that he promised that landlords would pass on their tax savings to renters. They didn’t. They pocketed the savings for themselves. Tenants were furious, and rent control movements erupted in at apa phd thesis citation least a dozen cities throughout California, from Berkeley to words for definition essays, Santa Monica. San Francisco might have gone a different way, but Angelo Sangiacomo was the alleged trigger.

The Italian-American landlord, who was born and raised in the Richmond District, demanded across-the-board rent increases of apa phd thesis citation, 25 to 65 percent in seventeen hundred apartments in March of 1979. Amid the outrage, Feinstein pushed for good for definition a 60-day rent freeze that would ward off the rise of a tenant-backed mayoral challenger. Both policies have had far-reaching and unanticipated ripple effects. Overnight, California’s property tax revenues fell by almost 60 percent, and the state had to make emergency allocations from a surplus that year to keep services afloat. Because the state’s K-12 schools are financed largely by property taxes, California’s spending per student fell from 5th in the nation in the mid-1960s to persuasive art, 50th in words essays this decade. Without the ability to rely as heavily on property taxes, city governments throughout the state had to favor office and citation retail development over housing in order to boost sales taxes. It may have even accelerated the for definition essays, homogeny of apa phd thesis, suburbs as smaller city governments had to good words essays, cut deals to attract “big box” retailers to thesis, boost sales tax revenue, crowding out independently-run stores.

It also created a lock-in effect as California property values soared, creating a bigger gap in good words property taxes on newly-sold properties and essay on celebrating diversity fracturing communities ones that homeowners had held onto for a long time. That rigidity further enhanced the for definition, political power that NIMBY-ist homeowners accumulated in suburban city councils throughout the state. Proposition 13’s legacy? Owners of this Presidio Heights home, which just closed at uc common a price of words for definition essays, $5,125,000 earlier this week, had been paying around $2,885 in on celebrating diversity without fracturing communities annual property taxes. The home’s new taxes should be around $60,885.

San Francisco’s 60-day rent control ordinance also stuck around, and it was subsequently strengthened through the following decades. Good For Definition! The maximum allowable annual rent increase went from 7 percent to 4 percent in mid-1980s and then to a fraction of the inflation rate set by the Rent Board in 1992. Because both Proposition 13 and rent control insulate homeowners and rent-controlled tenants from dramatic tax or rent increases when the is catton statement, market undersupplies housing, they undermined political will for building homes. Both of these policies were enacted just as the for definition essays, “Great Inversion” started. 9) Rent control’s impact on the city’s housing stock and politics is more complex than any basic economics textbook would suggest. Rent control is a naturally divisive topic in the tech community. Progressives view it as a sacred right that protects the remnants of a working- and middle-class in the city. “It’s a non-renewable resource,” Erin McElroy, who is part of the on celebrating diversity fracturing communities, Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, explained to me. But the tech community is both socially liberal and good for definition market-oriented, with more than 90 percent of political donations from Apple and Google employees going to Barack Obama in the last election. So price controls in the name of uc common app essay, community stability and words essays equity just makes people’s brains explode.

Some influential tech leaders will be supportive (and, as I said, Conway and Benioff back Ellis Act reform). Thesis! Then there are others, like venture capitalist Marc Andreessen, who has been vocal against rent control on Twitter. Stop SF evictions. Stop the Ellis act. http://t.co/sWk21dAvzj. Just know that it covers around 75 percent of the city’s rental housing stock.

If the Google Bus protests were centered on good words essays, 216 Ellis Act evictions in the last Rent Board year, you could imagine what would happen if you broached the topic of rent control. Want to alienate about half of essay on celebrating communities, San Francisco? Have fun. Yes, rent control is a blunt instrument of income re-distribution in an increasingly unequal world. It is not means-tested, meaning anyone from well-salaried, white-collar workers to very low-income residents can benefit from it. It also forces a number of small-time, mom-and-pop landlords to words for definition essays, individually subsidize someone else’s cost of living in the city. It creates two classes of tenants — one that is subject thesis, very legally protected and another that is not.

For market-rate tenants, there is no law compelling their landlords to give them as much as $44,842 in relocation expenses under new city legislation like they will for good words Ellis Act evictees if they raise rents beyond what they can afford. But tenants activists see San Francisco’s rent-controlled housing stock as a vital public good that gives middle-income residents a foothold in the city. And while the make-up of the city’s rent-controlled hasn’t been studied in more than a decade, it likely contains less-wealthy San Franciscans on average than the market-rate units do. In studies of other cities where rent control unexpectedly ended via a change in uc common prompt state law like Cambridge, Massachusetts, tenants in these apartments had lower incomes than those of market-rate renters. San Francisco’s version of rent control also does not apply to for definition essays, buildings constructed after 1979, so it shouldn’t dis-incentivize developers from producing new units. Instead, a lot of essay art, other factors are constricting supply. That said, I do think it undermines the political will that would otherwise exist for building more housing. 10) So a highly-restricted housing supply + rising demand + a volatile local economy prone to booms and busts + strict rent control without vacancy control = Eviction crisis every decade!

San Francisco’s version of rent control lacks vacancy controls, which means landlords can re-set rents at good for definition essays whatever the market will bear when new rent-controlled tenants move in. The logic is that with vacancy controls, landlords won’t invest in maintaining their properties. Where Statement! But the flipside is that the landlord also has a strong financial incentive to evict longstanding tenants who are paying below-market rates. So every decade during a boom, there is a tragic, elderly face for good for definition essays the story of displacement. This past year, it was Gum Gee Lee and Poon Heung Lee, the elderly Chinese-American couple with a mentally disabled daughter who were evicted last fall from their home of 34 years. Persuasive Essay Art! But back in good for definition essays the 1990s, there was Lola McKay. A year after her eviction fight started, McKay died alone in citation her Mission apartment of words for definition essays, 42 years at persuasive essay graffiti art age 83 in 2000. It sucks. I sat in good essays a high school gym in the Tenderloin full of terrified elderly and subject disabled people at the citywide tenant convention. During every real-estate boom, no-fault evictions — typically of words, rent-controlled tenants — tick or skyrocket upwards. (From an October 2013 memo to apa phd thesis citation, city supervisor David Campos.)

At the heart of the Google Bus protests are a specific kind of good, eviction called an Ellis Act eviction. There are 16 types of evictions, eight of which are considered “For Cause” and another eight which are considered “No Fault.” The Ellis Act is one of diversity fracturing communities, these. While it’s hard to fight a surge in words for definition other kinds of no-fault evictions like “Owner Move-In” evictions, the subject thesis, tenants movement has a stronger moral upper hand with the Ellis Act. That’s because the law, which was passed in 1985, was explicitly designed to let landlords go out of business . Tenants activists say that the Ellis Act is good for definition, instead abused by real estate speculators, who evict their tenants, turn these rent-controlled apartments into tenancies-in-common and sell them at a profit.

They point to a list of a “Dirty Dozen” landlords, who are the worst serial Ellis Act evictors. One of them is Urban Green Investments, which is apa phd thesis, evicting 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant, who live up my street. Phillips moved to words for definition, the city in the late 1930s as a war bride and moved into this 1950s-era apartment building on Dolores Street, across the way from what is now a huge apartment complex containing a brand-new bottom-floor Whole Foods Market. Her last day was supposed to be six days ago on April 8. But she’s still there, at least until the sheriff receives a court order to take action. Apa Phd Thesis! At 98, she has nowhere to good words for definition, go. 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant are being evicted from their apartments in citation the Mission District by Urban Green Investments.

Phillips’ last day was supposed to be six days ago. For Definition Essays! She doesn’t have anywhere to go and doesn’t have enough money to afford current market-rate rents in San Francisco. Essay Diversity Fracturing Communities! Brant, her neighbor, helps care for her. (From VanishingSF) The city government is good for definition, trying to respond as quickly as it can, but it can only do so much because the Ellis Act is state law. Earlier this week, city supervisor David Campos, who represents the other part of the apa phd, Mission, pushed legislation through the Board of Supervisors that would raise compensation for Ellis Act evictees. It’s going from for definition essays, $5,200 per tenant to the difference between the tenant’s current rent and the market-rate rent for a comparable apartment over two years. At current rates, this would be more than $44,832 for a two-bedroom apartment. They’re trying to change the law at the state level too. Mark Leno, who represents San Francisco in the California State Senate, also introduced a bill that would require landlords to is catton thesis statement, hold a property for five years before invoking the words for definition, Ellis Act to essay without fracturing, evict tenants. Good Words For Definition Essays! It just passed the apa phd, Senate Transportation and Housing Committee earlier this week. 12) Fuck, this is complicated.

Anti-tech sentiment becomes a catalyst. But the Google Bus protests worked. — Jessica Kwong (@JessicaGKwong) April 1, 2014. They were a media sensation. They tapped into this inchoate sense of frustration around everything from rising income inequality to privacy to essays, surveillance to the environmental impact of the hardware we buy to a dubious sense that today’s leading technology companies aren’t living up to their missions of not being evil.

“The we-hate-tech-workers is persuasive art, mostly a media narrative,” said organizer Fred Sherburn-Zimmer. “It’s not about that. It’s about income disparity. It’s about speculators using high-income workers to displace communities.” Sherburn-Zimmer acknowledged that the bus protests were a tactic. But she said, without them, the movement wouldn’t have been able to get 500 people to march in Sacramento for Ellis Act reform. She also said that the for definition essays, support of Conway, the advocacy group he founded called sf.citi and other tech companies will be invaluable in turning votes on the peninsula to get Leno’s bill moving. It just passed the apa phd thesis, Senate Transportation and words Housing Committee this week. So the protests will keep going, because they are what keep Leno’s bill and Ellis Act reform in the news. (Don’t take it too personally. You can blame us — the media — for finding protests against globally-recognized brands like Google much sexier than protests against individual Mountain View city council members.) 13) Who are the protesters and what do they want? Hundreds still marching in the mission to demand no more evictions of #SF teachers.

Going bldg to bldg under threat. pic.twitter.com/ApHZ4ljxwN. — David Zlutnick (@DavidZlutnick) April 12, 2014. Like the tech community itself, the activist community is essay, pretty heterogeneous. There are groups like Causa Justa, which focuses on Latino and black communities. The are housing focused groups like the Housing Rights Committee and others affiliated with the San Francisco Tenants Union.

There are efforts like the good words for definition essays, Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, which is asking San Franciscans to boycott renting at places where Ellis Act evictions have happened. McElroy, who is crammed into without a two-bedroom, non-rent-controlled apartment with four other people in Bernal Heights, built it along with other tech workers including Kelsey Gilmore-Innis, Sasha Magee and good words essays Silvia Amtmann. She’s been leading many of the protests several times a week at different real estate offices, Google Bus stops and homes where long-time tenants are being evicted. The broad point here is that while tech-fueled economic growth can be good, gentrification carries enormous and often tragic costs for certain individuals and uc common prompt communities. If those costs aren’t being recognized by a purely market-based system, then the political system should rectify it. “We implore tech to start talking to words essays, us. Essay Diversity! Come out into good essays the streets with us. I don’t think it occurs to thesis, people that they can be a body too.

People live in bubbles here,” McElroy said. “If you’re scared, what does that compare to people who are being forced out of good essays, their homes?” But there are times when it can just get weird or borderline disturbing. The Counterforce left creepy flyers at Kevin Rose’s house demanding $3 billion for an anarchist utopia and showed up one morning at the Berkeley home of Google engineering manager Anthony Levandowski. While McElroy communicates with The Counterforce, they are a separate group with different tactics. And it often feels like protests meant to stir meaningful discussion about income inequality, gentrification and essay housing veer off into misguided anger or hatred. At an anti-eviction protest on Friday, hundreds of people marched through the streets of the Mission with a brass band. It was totally non-violent, with lots of children, parents, teachers and seniors singing and shouting.

Lowell High School senior Natalia Arguello-Inglis took the words essays, microphone and said, “We can’t blindly hate on the techies and yuppies. Subject Thesis! Who are we to judge who can come into good words essays this city and who can not? Gentrification is not going to tufts senior, go away. But we can work with the people who are causing it.” But there was also one ‘Tech = Death’ sign in a visual reference to for definition essays, early 1990s anti-AIDS documentary ‘Silence = Death’ and a few other people carried pictures of essay on celebrating diversity communities, Jack Halprin, the words, Google lawyer who is evicting multiple tenants from his house on app essay prompt, Guerrero Street. Following the protests, a Business Insider reporter named Kyle Russell also had Google Glass ripped off his face and essays smashed.

Three protests so far have also individually targeted Google employees, including Kevin Rose, who came home to a large banner and flyers reading “Kevin Rose Parasite” (pictured below). Also, a protester climbed on top of a Yahoo bus at the MacArthur station and vomited on it. Randy Shaw, who houses low-income San Franciscans in 1,600 units under the non-profit Tenderloin Housing Clinic, calls this backlash a new form of nativism. When he moved here in the late 1970s, he remembered straight residents making the essay graffiti art, same complaints about an influx of gays into good words for definition essays the Castro or a flood of Latino immigrants into app essay what was a largely Irish-American Mission District a generation ago. “…the war on tech workers—as opposed to tech companies or policies— is not really a “class war.” Rather, it is about one group of good, predominately white people complaining about art a similar demographic group that likes many of the good words for definition, same restaurants, bars, street festivals, and essay art Samba classes that they do—but who makes more money.” He points out that many of the union-affiliated protesters blasting Twitter in front of the company’s headquarters are simultaneously requesting budget increases from the mayor’s office, which is largely possible because of the tech-fueled economic boom. In other cases, it feels like activists are misusing state laws to good words essays, make a point. Several groups spent eight hours at is catton thesis statement the Board of Supervisors meeting earlier this month challenging the city’s decision not to put the new tech commuter shuttle pilot program under environmental review via CEQA. Good! This is thesis statement, even though the buses take cars off the road for as many as 4,000 commuters every day. They argued that displacement of words essays, existing communities should be counted as an environmental impact of the shuttle program.

The Board of Supervisors disagreed, voting 8-2 to uphold the exemption. “We’re not saying no buses,” Sherburn-Zimmer said. “We’re saying that there are consequences that happen when these buses move into the neighborhood.” Certainly, charging $1 per use of a public bus stop is low when the regular MUNI fare is $2. But under California Proposition 218, the transportation agency is not allowed to create a revenue-generating program. So the thesis, program can only pay for its $1.7 million in costs now. But the words for definition, activists aren’t happy with that. “Google never came to us and subject asked us what we would like to see,” McElroy said. “We are not into backdoor deal-making with politicians.” Also, none of words for definition essays, this — the increased eviction protections, the thesis, push to stall the shuttle program under CEQA, Ellis Act reform — amounts to massive, systems-level change.

It protects long-time residents who are already here, but it doesn’t make San Francisco affordable or available to future middle- or working-class residents. The activists know this. “We’re playing fastball right now,” McElroy said. “These are Band-Aid solutions.” Indeed, this is words for definition, politics! 14) So complicated! What are compromises that have actually worked?

Normally, city policy makers favor constructing housing where there are no pre-existing units because new housing is generally less affordable than old housing. Essay! But because we are a city that has been built out since the 1950s, we have very little unused space left. One project that could point the way is Trinity Plaza at essays 8th and Mission. It’s a 1,900-unit complex that came about through an agreement in 2005 between the unlikeliest of allies. Trinity Plaza in 1962. Described as “San Francisco’s new, luxurious, fully air conditioned 400 room motor hotel.” Eric Fischer/Flickr.

On one side was the subject of my, infamous “Father of good words for definition, Rent Control” Sangiacomo. Trinity was a rundown 1960s-era motel that ended up being turned into an apartment building with 360 rent-controlled units. When Sangiacomo originally proposed re-developing the area, it stirred up progressive opposition led by Daly and a two-year political battle ensued. It was a big win. Longtime residents weren’t displaced and got brand-new homes at near their old rent, plus the city got to provide many more homes to essay art, other San Franciscans. 15) What is the good words for definition, city government doing? If you can see any possible silver lining in being antagonized every day in protests, it’s that the city government will be really, really, really focused on housing. A lot of things that weren’t considered politically possible for years are happening now. The Board of Supervisors was able to pass a bill to legalize in-law units, which can be anything from garages to attics that have illegally housed tens of thousands of uc common prompt, San Franciscans for decades in a shadow housing market.

They also voted to increase Ellis Act relocation compensation, although landlords represented by the San Francisco Apartment Association say they are considering a lawsuit to challenge this. The mayor doubled the city’s downpayment assistance program to good words for definition, first-time home buyers to $200,000. The mayor pledged to build or rehabilitate 30,000 units in the next six years, with one-third of essay on celebrating diversity without fracturing, those being permanently affordable to lower and moderate-income families. He also convened a working group representing more than 75 different interests that will come up with solutions to words, the housing crisis. Tufts Senior Thesis! You can read different ideas for solving the housing crisis here from for definition essays, SPUR, the apa phd citation, San Francisco Housing Action Coalition or the Council of good words for definition essays, Community Housing Organizations. There is no silver bullet in any of these. It’s a hard problem. Lee, Leno and others are collaborating on this Ellis Act bill in the state legislature. They’re also working on using city-owned land for thesis affordable housing developments. Ahead of all these protests, Lee also got voters to pass an Affordable Housing Trust Fund back in essays 2012.

But any projects from it are also likely to be mired in that crazy planning process. 16) What is the tech industry doing? Ron Conway is is catton, asking tech CEOs across the good words, industry to persuasive essay, speak up in favor of Ellis Act reform, which would help longtime tenants at risk of no-fault evictions stay in their rent-controlled units. Google also gave $6.8 million as a temporary source of funding for essays a MUNI program that gives free rides to low-income youth. In March, the app essay, company also opened a Bay Area Impact Challenge, which will grant $5 million to 25 Bay Area non-profits. For Definition! Two weeks ago, they also funded all of the Bay Area projects on essay graffiti, Donors Choose, which is a platform where teachers can list projects that they need funding for in their classrooms. The amount was roughly $600,000 for 600 area projects.

Salesforce CEO Marc Benioff also challenged tech industry workers to raise $10 million in the next 60 days for good words for definition essays anti-poverty organizations. Persuasive Art! Google was also a founding partner in good words for definition the effort, called the diversity without fracturing, Tipping Point SF Gives fund, with a $1 million donation. Just a few days ago, Benioff and his wife also gave a second $100 million to the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and its affiliate, the Children’s Hospital Research Center in Oakland. The mayor and sf.citi have been brokering meetings between tech companies like Jawbone, Pinterest, Airbnb and words non-profits like the YMCA, the Tenderloin Housing Clinic and the Mission Economic Development Agency. Jawbone CEO Hosain Rahman and YMCA San Francisco CEO Chuck Collins co-authored a piece outlining a “One City” strategy today. Airbnb is persuasive essay, now remitting San Francisco’s 14 percent hotel occupancy tax. Then there are lots of words, other efforts (and I can’t remember them all), like Zendesk’s and tufts senior city’s new mobile site for homeless services called LinkSF. Words Essays! Square, which has been doing trash clean-ups every Friday on the streets of Mid-Market for more than a year, starting hiring security guards with equity instead of contracting this work out to other companies. There was a Hacktivation for the Homeless, where developers donated their time to build projects requested by local non-profits.

Consider these things just a start. 17) What about this “Twitter tax break” that the unions say is costing the subject of my thesis, city $56 million? There is a ton of anger at the tech industry over two tax exclusions that were passed in 2011. David Campos, the city supervisor who represents the Mission, recently called for a hearing on the so-called “Twitter tax break.” (Not so coincidentally, he is currently running to represent San Francisco in the California state assembly against David Chiu.) It’s a complicated issue if you look into it. Yes, San Francisco is an words for definition, extremely desirable place and it has more leverage than most cities in the entire country to squeeze corporations for essay diversity without communities additional taxes or concessions. But those taxes can’t be so out of line with neighboring cities that companies just move one city south, leaving San Francisco with the same housing problems but nothing in for definition essays business tax revenue to of my thesis, show for it. For Definition! This is one reason for why the biotechnology industry has historically been centered in South San Francisco with companies like Genentech, even though San Francisco is home to uc common app essay, UCSF, one of the best medical schools and research facilities in words the world. At the time that the city passed both exclusions, San Francisco was the only city in the state of persuasive graffiti art, California to derive all of its business tax revenue from payrolls and one of the few in the nation that taxed employee stock options. So this uncapped, unpredictable tax liability that could stretch into words tens of millions of dollars was a huge reason to leave even though Twitter’s leadership wanted to stay.

At the same time, San Francisco’s unemployment rate was north of 8 percent at that time, so the city’s priority was to thesis citation, create jobs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion (a.k.a. Good Words! “Twitter tax break”) will be a moot point by 2018 when the persuasive essay graffiti, city shifts entirely to good essays, a gross receipts tax. The new @twitter HQ sign is an homage to the civic importance of its predecessor. Tufts Thesis! Here’s old vs new. pic.twitter.com/XNF3Lurwbs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion, was created with Twitter in mind in 2011 to good for definition essays, incentivize companies to subject, stay in San Francisco and move to a part of Market Street that had 30 percent storefront vacancy rates. The point was to create a tech cluster that would generate meaningful tax revenues over the long-run through an estimated $54 million over 20 years and boost economic activity in good words the area. The exclusion was available to all companies with more than $250,000 in payrolls that moved there. Twitter was the anchor, and it moved its headquarters to a Shorenstein-owned SF Mart building that had been vacant for apa phd citation five years.

Companies like Zendesk, Spotify and words for definition essays One Kings Lane also joined the program and got a break from the city’s 1.5 percent payroll tax on thesis, additional headcount for up to six years if they moved to for definition, Mid-Market. In 2012, this amounted to $1.9 million in foregone taxes on subject of my, $126.8 million in payroll expenses. Because these companies had more than $1 million in payroll expenses, they also had to words for definition, create ‘Community Benefit Agreements’ that documented how they’re giving back to the community through donations and is catton thesis volunteership. While the words for definition essays, advisory committee overseeing the program loves IPO candidate Zendesk, its members are frustrated with Twitter and other companies for being too vague on commitments or not even showing up to meetings. Then, the on celebrating fracturing communities, whole payroll tax was subsequently reformed or scrapped by voters the following year through Proposition E in favor of a tax on good words essays, gross receipts that’s starting to be phased in. The argument was that payroll taxes penalize job creation.

On top of that, the city was only collecting the payroll taxes from uc common app essay prompt, less than 10 percent of the good words for definition, roughly 100,000 registered companies in the city at that time. A gross receipts tax focuses on revenues; it’s generally good for service businesses like restaurants and pre-revenue companies that could scale quickly like tech startups. Where Is Catton Thesis Statement! The city used to charge either the greater of words, a gross receipts tax or a payroll tax, but the uc common, California state court system ruled that this was illegal after companies like Eastman Kodak and General Motors sued the city of essays, Los Angeles for the same practice more than a decade ago. The city had tried to shift from a payroll tax to a gross receipts tax before, but the measure didn’t pass until 2012. So this whole tax break that people are screaming about will be a moot point by thesis statement 2018, when the gross receipts tax is fully baked in for everyone. And if San Francisco is able to good for definition essays, convince tech companies to stay instead of moving down south to the peninsula, and on celebrating communities one of them turns into a Facebook, Oracle or Google-sized company, the for definition essays, city will be able to capture a percentage of what will be billions of dollars in annual revenues. The city said today that the program had already helped generate $8.4 million in subject of my property and words for definition real estate transfer taxes, attracted 18 tech companies and app essay prompt convinced 17 small businesses to open on the street.

The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion zone. Companies that move to good words, this area receive a break from the 1.5 percent payroll tax until 2017. By 2018, the city will be fully shifted over into a gross receipts tax, however. The employee stock options tax is the one that cuts to the heart of a broad inequality debate. There was a second temporary tax exemption that was passed in 2011 that focused on essay on celebrating fracturing communities, employee stock options and good for definition essays was created to retain pre-IPO companies in San Francisco like Zynga, Twitter and Zendesk. TechCrunch covered it back in 2011 and it should also be over-ridden by essay on celebrating communities the shift to gross receipts taxes. This is the one that is more controversial in the context of the broader inequality debate. James Temple, who now works at Re/Code, wrote a piece for the San Francisco Chronicle last fall saying that this tax break cost the city $34 million on top of the projected $22 million in foregone revenue from the Mid-Market program.

This is where this $56 million figure keeps coming from, even though if Twitter had moved, the city wouldn’t have seen any of it. It’s phantom money. Paying $56 million to San Francisco-versus-paying business taxes in other neighboring Silicon Valley cities. Words Essays! (From a 2011 Budget and Legislative Analyst memo.) At the persuasive essay graffiti, time it was passed, San Francisco was one of the good essays, few cities in the nation to tax employee stock options and it included them as part of the 1.5 percent payroll tax. The controller’s office also found that San Francisco had a higher propensity to lose businesses to other locales than Santa Clara, San Mateo, Alameda, or Contra Costa counties.

The city government studied more than a dozen San Francisco-based IPOs since 1997, and where is catton found that no single company paid more than $685,000 in taxes on employee stock options in any one year. So they capped the words for definition, employee stock options tax at thesis $750,000 for essays pre-IPO companies on equity granted before a public offering. The city’s leadership made a choice to retain startups as they matured into growth companies, keep those jobs and is catton statement then earn taxes on good, gross receipts later. Yet I can see how witnessing hundreds of early Twitter employees become millionaires overnight would be aggravating to San Franciscans who are feeling squeezed or who feel like public services aren’t adequately supported. A lot of other VCs and founders are also digesting Thomas Piketty’s new book, “Capital in the 21st Century.” With more than 200 years of data, it chronicles an inexorable rise in essay art inequality that was punctuated in the middle of the 20th century by good words for definition essays the Great Depression and World War II followed by 30 years of evenly-spread prosperity. Ultimately, it advocates a globally-coordinated tax on uc common app essay prompt, wealth. The keyword there is words for definition, coordinated . If this issue re-emerges again in San Francisco (and it will), you’d have to where is catton, make sure that the proposed solutions don’t end up driving away jobs or growth-stage companies. The previous employee stock options tax was poorly-designed in the context of what neighboring cities were doing — which is nothing. Moreover, it’s a highly volatile source of tax revenue.

No one had any idea that Twitter’s IPO would go so well, or that Zynga’s would go so terribly. You’d either have to design something less punitive compared to neighboring cities or create something that is good words for definition, coordinated with the rest of Silicon Valley. If not, there are plenty of thesis statement, ways that the tech boom is supporting city coffers. At an annual $7.9 billion, the city’s current budget is more than $1.5 billion more than what it was at the recession’s low point, largely because of the good for definition, tech-fueled economic recovery. Also, remember Proposition 13 and thesis all those houses that are paying taxes tied to 1970s or 1980s assessments? Now that there’s a revived real estate market, all of those homes are being re-assessed at current market values when they get sold.

So the city expects to see $79 million more in property taxes than the $1.15 billion it had originally budgeted for this fiscal year, according to words for definition essays, an update last month. And again, we’re switching over to gross receipts anyway. 18) Isn’t the tech community made up of a bunch of libertarians who have total disregard for government and taxes? The tech leadership of subject of my, this generation doesn’t have a reflexive anti-tax orientation like that of the Reagan era. They’re not secretly having Laffer Curve parties in their private jets to Burning Man. Facebook’s first angel and Silicon Valley’s most visible libertarian, Peter Thiel.

“I wouldn’t mind paying more in taxes if I could do anything I wanted to do with the rest of the money, which I’m largely restricted in good for definition what I can do, from the FDA on apa phd thesis, down to good words for definition essays, the San Francisco zoning department.” “I live in apa phd the Marina area in San Francisco. They built the Golden Gate Bridge in three and a half years in the 1930s, ‘33 to ‘36. They’re now building an access road to the bridge that’s taken eight years and possibly will end up costing more in inflation adjusted dollars than the whole bridge cost in the ‘30s. So it’s one of the reasons I personally don’t want to pay more taxes, because I feel the government spends the money so extraordinarily badly. I’d be fine with paying more if I felt the government was run as well as it was run in the ‘50s, ‘60s, ‘30s.” Even venture capitalist Tim Draper, who is pushing this far-out plan to break California into six states, conceded that Silicon Valley was the good words, least likely to support it out of all the hypothetical Californias he wants to create.

He didn’t say why though. And your renegade law-breaking companies of subject thesis, Airbnb, Lyft and words essays Uber? They proved product-market fit, built something that people were willing to pay for, scaled their businesses and now they are both transforming and being reined into the existing regulatory and tax infrastructure. Airbnb is now remitting its 14 percent in hotel taxes and seeing enforcement from the app essay, city’s planning department. While there is a visible libertarian fringe, the tech community on good, the whole donates overwhelmingly to the Democratic party (which means they’re pro-business moderates in San Francisco’s terms). 19) Real change on taxes, transit and housing will require a region-wide body with more political teeth. In 1912, a Greater San Francisco movement emerged and the city tried to subject thesis, annex Oakland. Understandably, Oakland refused. For more than a century, the Bay Area’s housing, transit infrastructure and tax system has been haunted by the region’s fragmented governance.

We aren’t like New York City, where the government has oversight over five boroughs containing 8.4 million people. For the 7 million people of the San Francisco Bay Area, it’s every city and county for themselves. Essays! While there is a council of city governments called the Association of Bay Area Governments that was started in 1961, it’s not sufficiently powerful. That means NIMBY-ists in every city try and shove the housing issue onto someone else. That means it’s a race-to-the-bottom on essay, business taxes. That means we have a fragmented transportation system between BART, MUNI, AC Transit, VTA Light Rail, SamTrans and so on. BART would have run around the entire Bay Area, but San Mateo County dropped out in 1961 and good words for definition essays then Marin did too. Not only is transportation down the peninsula fragmented between all of these different systems, the suburbs have also blocked many denser housing developments along the of my thesis, Caltrain stations that would have supported workforces for companies like Google and Facebook. 20) This seems overwhelming.

Why doesn’t Google just move to Detroit? Actually, this is happening. Just not in words for definition essays Detroit. Yet. During the last tech boom, it was hard to think of more than a handful of cities that boasted a startup ecosystem. Today, there are many.

The high cost of living in the Bay Area is the rest of the thesis, world’s gain. A Startup Genome Map measuring the depth of various tech entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world. Look all over the world. In the Mitte and Kreuzberg neighborhoods of essays, Berlin. In Zhongguancun, Beijing where Tsinghua University is sprouting companies.

In Greenpoint, Brooklyn where Kickstarter is apa phd thesis, headquartered. In Israel, where the country is having a run of words essays, consumer exits with the thesis citation, Waze and Onavo acquisitions. In Noida and Gurgaon. The world’s leading virtual reality startup, just acquired for $2 billion by Facebook, is run out of Orange County. The world’s leading mobile gaming companies are run out of for definition, London and apa phd citation Helsinki. The world’s most interesting emerging handset maker, Xiaomi, is run out of Beijing. For Definition! Just four years after launch, they expect to ship $11 billion worth of phones and thesis statement accessories.

Snapchat, started by a handful of Stanford graduates who would have probably stayed here a decade ago, is run out of good words, a beach house in Venice. Soylent — OK, make fun of them — just decamped for Los Angeles because warehouse space was too expensive here. Silicon Valley is still the densest and strongest tech ecosystem in the world. But it is only ahead because — in startup parlance — it was a first mover. Consider when Silicon Valley’s building blocks were laid in the 1940s through the 1970s through foundational companies like Hewlett-Packard, Fairchild and Shockley Semiconductor and subject of my thesis Xerox PARC.

At that time, the rest of the good, world’s major economies were being rebuilt. Europe was undergoing World War II reconstruction and India and China were just establishing a sense of national unity and thesis citation systems of governance. Both India and China have made major economic reforms and today, the choice between Bangalore, Beijing and Silicon Valley is words for definition, more of a coin toss for persuasive entrepreneurial talent than a no-brainer. While Silicon Valley certainly isn’t in peril, its continued resilience depends on whether it can keep attracting the best talent and new ideas from everywhere. No, we’re not fucked. If you’ve actually read this far, you know why we’re here. We’re paying crazy rents and mortgages or rolling around on gMuni bouncy balls in the streets because the Bay Area has done a lot of things right. But do you know what else is true? They found that children in San Jose and good words San Francisco had the highest chances of moving from the tufts biology, bottom income quintile to the top quintile out of good words for definition essays, all major metropolitan areas in the United States. Then there are the more realistic ones, like that of my mother, who moved to apa phd thesis citation, the Bay Area in the late 1970s as a Vietnamese refugee.

Because my grandparents were too old to words essays, work and essay without fracturing communities they couldn’t speak English, my mother and her five sisters pooled together their earnings to collectively buy a home in San Jose all while in their mid-twenties. They then parlayed the equity from that home into buying homes of their own when they were ready to good for definition, start families. We have to apa phd citation, remember that cities are unequal because the opportunities they provide attract both the essays, very rich and the very poor. San Francisco’s extreme juxtapositions of wealth and poverty exist because the city is both an extremely desirable place to live and tufts it maintains protections for residents through programs like rent control and $165 million a year in spending on homelessness. The gleaming, onyx NEMA towers exist side-by-side with homelessness because San Francisco created the good words for definition essays, Mid-Market program to tufts biology thesis, lure companies like Twitter and the single-room-occupancy hotels and non-profits that house and feed the city’s poorest residents have been politically protected in the Tenderloin for decades. Both the for definition essays, tech industry and San Francisco have delicate ecologies that have taken decades to cultivate. As they become more intertwined, the political winds of the city are shifting. Uc Common Prompt! They could go in for definition essays an increasingly antagonistic direction or a new consensus could emerge. What will it be? Tech workers: It’s not as easy as just building up.

This battle has been raging on since the sand dunes of the Sunset district were flattened for single-family homes in the 1950s. Try to subject thesis, understand where others are coming from. There are people out there like Mary Elizabeth Phillips, who could really use your help right now, whether that means signing a petition for Ellis Act reform, calling or e-mailing Urban Green, or boycotting Ellis Act eviction properties. How can your actions where you live benefit others who are losing out during this economic boom? How will you participate in your community? Will it be through charity?

Through volunteership? Through taxes? Are you willing to fight the good essays, political battles and form the alliances necessary to essay on celebrating diversity without, create housing for tech workers and for definition teachers alike? You need to vote, to show the city government that there is apa phd thesis citation, political will for development or else the old, anti-growth regime will keep dictating preservationist policies that turn housing into a zero-sum game. Companies like Gap, Wells Fargo, Levi Strauss Co. and Salesforce also have long histories of participating in San Francisco’s civic life.

What legacy will companies like Dropbox, Square, Airbnb and Twitter leave? Homeowners in good words for definition essays the neighborhood associations and in the peninsula: The tech industry is is catton statement, helping your home values skyrocket, but your property taxes have not kept up with the cost of providing services or schools. Stop sitting in good for definition the background while the city’s workers, the poor, the elderly and its young duke out in this ugly charade. While there are some tech workers who do strike it rich, most just have salaries and would love to raise families in the Bay Area just as you did when you came here years ago. The Bay Area risks becoming a victim of its own success if it can’t make more room. Uc Common App Essay! At this point, blocking individual housing developments to protect your views is tantamount to essays, generational theft. Activists: Invoking CEQA clauses to stall the city’s tech shuttle program through an environmental impact review so that 1,400 of 4,000 tech bus riders may or may not decide to move slightly south is not a game-changing way to address housing affordability in San Francisco.

The industry’s leadership like Conway are asking tech companies to back Ellis Act reform. But without serious additions to the entire region’s housing supply, these crisis measures just make San Francisco’s existing middle- and working-class a highly-protected, but endangered population in the long-run. With such limited rental stock available on citation, the market at any time, what kind of person can afford to move here today when the city’s median rent is $3,350? For the more extreme groups, you cannot logically fight both development and displacement. The real estate speculation running through the for definition, city right now is is catton thesis, just as much a bet on political paralysis in the face of a long-term housing shortage as it is on San Francisco’s desirability as a place to words, live. Furthermore, the antagonism only persuasive graffiti art ensures that deals will happen behind closed doors. The unfortunate path of least resistance for most tech companies will be to just pay their workers more, instead of engaging in regional politics. That is a loss for everyone. For the more pragmatic groups, the good words for definition, tech community could easily be persuaded to support inclusionary housing, provided the numbers still work out profitably for developers and subject of my thesis that lots more overall housing units gets built. The same goes for Trinity-like projects.

In conclusion: The crisis we’re seeing is the result of decades of words essays, choices, and while the tech industry is a sexy, attention-grabbing target, it cannot shoulder blame for this alone. Unless a new direction emerges, this will keep getting worse until the next economic crash, and then it will re-surface again eight years later. Or it will keep spilling over into Oakland, which is a whole other Pandora’s box of gentrification issues. The high housing costs aren’t healthy for the city, nor are they healthy for the industry. Both thrive on a constant flow of ideas and people. So while Google may not be opening a giant office in Detroit anytime soon, the people of Detroit and senior the Midwest are coming here. I meet them every day. There are people like Brian Clark, who actually did move from Detroit, and was living off various hackathon winnings while teaching coding in MissionBit’s after-school programs for San Francisco’s public school students. For Definition! Earlier this spring, he was literally sleeping on apa phd thesis, friends’ couches, eating one meal a day.

But he won the Launch Hackathon and now has initial funding for a new startup called Vue, a mobile feedback and user engagement tool he built. Or like Rey Faustino, who I wrote about last month. He grew up in a working-class family in Southern California that relied on social services to essays, make ends meet. Now he’s working on fixing the app essay prompt, problems he remembered as a child through One Degree, which is a Yelp-like platform that helps Bay Area families find the right non-profits and social services for them. It’s supported by good words for definition Y Combinator and has thousands of users. Many of the people who come here will stay, and make vital contributions for decades through their work, their taxes and their charitable contributions. Of My Thesis! Some will come for good words for definition essays awhile and prompt then go back and invigorate entrepreneurial ecosystems back home. This circulation of creative talent is words for definition, crucial not only for the Bay Area, but for the rest of the United States.

I would not want to tufts thesis, deny anyone — rich or poor — the chance to transform or be transformed by this place. Top image: A hearse rolls up to a Yahoo bus at the BART MacArthur Station in for definition Oakland. Tufts Biology Senior! A protester who had climbed on top of the bus later vomited on the vehicle. Words For Definition! (From Andrew Kenower)

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Pros and Cons of Lobbyists in the US essay. Definition: The term Lobbyists is a word that is given to a group of individual or persons who is/ are employed in order to convince or persuade the words essays, legislatures (i.e. the elected members of parliament) in order to vote in favor of a bill or law that will favor the majority of senior thesis citizens or the employers of the lobbyists. The word lobbyist is derived from the word Lobby which means the good essays, formation of a group that aims at intentionally persuading, influencing and convincing the decisions that are made by the legislatures, senior government officials, constituents and other advocacy groups. Therefore, it should be noted the these groups are aimed at ensuring that the essay, maters that pertains to there interests are adhered to and made to be law thus ensuring that they a well represented and essays, governed. The lobbying is subject thesis, also the process where a group petitions a government to intervene in special issues that are of strong national interest (Hahn, 2009). How they conduct their functions. Lobbyists are a group of individuals who form a group with the aim of imposing sanctions on the government or even persuading the legislatures to vote towards a certain bill that reflects their interest. It comprises of a group of intellectuals, retired congress men and human right activists who are aimed at monitoring / correcting the way the government conducts its duties and runs its business (Morgan, 2007). They might be employed by groups such as labor unions, religious or social welfare associations, and other special groups, human right groups and individuals with some special interests amongst other groups of individuals and essays, organizations that would want their services in order to apa phd, help them achieve their intended mission in the society. Duties and Responsibilities of the Lobbyists. There are several different duties that the lobbyists and the lobby groups in any given country perform some of these duties includes the sensitization of the citizens and civil servants of their rights (The Debatabase Book, 2003).

This will not only words for definition, aim at improving their support amongst the citizens and on celebrating diversity without fracturing communities, civil servants but will provide the group of the sensitized individuals with the opportunity of knowing their rights more and reduce the cases of violation of their rights by good the government or any other person. A lobbyist is also a representative of the where is catton thesis, public /client interests in words essays, a special forum with the legislatures or a senior government official. This is where lobbyists will be in on celebrating diversity without fracturing communities, a position to attend some of the meeting that are of national interest and in these meeting the lobbyists will be able to air the demands of the public. At the same time convince the legislatures and for definition, the government officials in to voting or even implementing their plans as it will be of great importance to the public. The lobbyists also read and interpret the meaning of the legislative bill that will be passed by the legislatures to becoming laws.

And from the interpretation of the lobbyist they will be able to determine the advantages or disadvantages of these laws on there clients. Thus providing the lobbyists with the opportunity of sharing there ideas with the legislatures in order to tufts biology senior, ensure that they are in a position to benefits their clients without interfering with their interests. In addition, they petition the officials in reforming the laws in order to suite the interests of their clients (Phil, 2008). The lobbyists will also conduct press conferences that will be used as a way of informing the public and also exercising their position. Indeed, they ensure that the public is well informed of the stand in which the lobby group is words essays, trying to take the lobby groups will also use the media as a way in which they will be able to help the uc common, public in knowing their rights and understanding of the legislative laws (Morgan, 2007). They are also made aware of the effects of the law on them; this is by providing them with the advantages and disadvantages of the legislative laws and also providing the viewers /audiences with their reasons of supporting or neglecting the good essays, given law and regulation. This paper highlights on the pros and cons of the lobbyists in tufts biology, the United States of America government; this is after we have identified and understood the words for definition, responsibilities and duties of the thesis, lobbyists and the lobby groups and its importance to the public. This is especially a very important aspect that will have on words for definition, the public and the government operations and actions (Morgan, 2007). Pros of the lobbyists in the United States of America government.

There are very many important things that that lobbyists and of my thesis, lobby groups have on a given states, and this is clearly portrayed from the definition of the term lobbyists. This is because they play a major role in the monitoring the way the country is being run; this is by keeping watch or even convincing the government and words for definition, the legislatures to deal with a situation that is of national importance first before its effects penetrate deep into the society. This, shields the common-man who has low income and minimum wages from more problems; that could be prevented if the appropriate demands were taken into deep consideration and not neglected by the government officials and legislatures for a long time. One advantage of the Lobbyists is citation, that the lobbyists have played a major role in improving the words for definition, governance of the society; this is of my, experienced in the ways the government has transformed the United States of America government to be more reliable to its citizens and address pressing issues. As a result of these pressures and words for definition, persuasions the legislature will pass bill that will provide the citizens with good policies that are good for senior thesis, the development of the words, nation (The Debatabase Book, 2003). This is expressed in uc common app essay, the racial discrimination bill that was passed in the United States of America some in the early 20 th century when the lobbyists complained that the Blacks and good, the other minor races in America a were being ill -treated by the white Americans in the country. This resulted to the abolition of slave trade and statement, the recognition of all the races in America as equal and also provided the same treatment and good essays, subjecting any body who is involved in any form of racial discrimination to heavy fines and punishment since it was a violation of their human rights and where, a breach of the American constitution. Lobbyists have also improved the good words, lives and existence of many endangered species; this is because the lobbyists will impose some new legislative laws that will ensure that the legislatures pass in order to ensure that they are supporting the uc common app essay prompt, existence of the endangered species such as animals, plants and other designated areas (Hahn, 2009).

These will help the government to preserve some of these natural resources and animals. The country will also be in a position of managing these natural resources such as wild animals and plants. The lobbyists are also able to for definition, have a legal basis to protect these resources in the long run; thus these lobbyists end up making the change that is essay graffiti art, most effective to the people in the country. Consequently, the lobbyists help the people and government to maintain the natural resources from more and words essays, more safe and protected. Cons of the lobbyists in the United States of America government. Despite the increased advocacy that have been talked about in the previous section on the advantages of the tufts biology senior, lobbyist in the United States of good words for definition America government it has turned out that the lobbyists have also some negative image that are seen as a way of denying the citizens the opportunity of getting the best governance. Persuasive Graffiti! This is essays, because the lobbyists will be compromised or even convinced by their clients who comprises of a smaller section of the public who are very rich and want the app essay, legislative law to be passed in order for it to benefit them only and at the same time molest the majority of the population. This is a clear indication that the lobbyists don't always help in the improvement of the social standards and governance of the country. This is because the lobbyists are well compromised with in essays, order to apa phd citation, lure the legislatures and the top government officials into words vote or even support the decision that they are supporting despite the offences that are associated with their actions (The Debatabase Book, 2003).

A good example is when the lobbyists cooperated with the subject, white house in order to support the bid of the buying of the Enron shares. Thus making the stakeholders loose a lot of money as they never knew that the company was at the verge of collapsing yet the lobbyists were still pushing for the legislation that would result to the company to be enlisted in the stock exchange and conduct its activities. Lobbyists are also seen as the most corrupt individuals or groups of people in the United States of America; this is because they impose the government into words for definition essays legalizing of legislations that are for the benefit of a few influential individuals, while sidelining the benefits of the entire population (Phil, 2008). This will definitely result to capitalism management of the country, where the government actions and activities are influenced with the few rich and wealthy individuals who will dominate the essay on celebrating fracturing, greater economy of the good words essays, nations while the greater percentage of the nation will basically rely on the minimum income. In this regard they use the tufts thesis, lobbyist to dominate the entire country from the corrupt deals of the lobbyists who pushed for the benefit of the rich but not for the poor. Lobbyism has also resulted to the marginalization of the American society; this is clearly seen when legislatures accord or even provides only the lobbyists with the words essays, attention and room for biology, dialogue and negotiation. They can't just provide or even give any individual with any audience, this is clear indication that shows how the country is governed by the lobbyists who act as the intermediary that connects the common citizens and the legislatures or top most government officials. This will result to the distortion of the information or problems that are facing the citizens (Phil, 2008).

This will eventually lead to the lobbyists directing the ways in which the government should govern the country. At the same time the lobbyists will use this as an avenue of deviating from the interest of these public and push for there own individual benefits without the influence of the local individuals who don't have any powers to alter the passed legislation. Lobbying has also resulted to dirty politics and inclined governance in the United States of America that aims as serving the interest of a few section the good words for definition essays, suspected legislation tend to support. Essay On Celebrating Diversity Without Fracturing Communities! In this case dirty politics has resulted when the lobbyists tend to influence the politicians into supporting their views or vote for their legislations and incase an individual fails to support the ideas of the individual that will be threatened, assassinated, de-campaigned against during the next election, arraigned in court for corruption allegations or even given greater deals that they cant resist. This will definitely result to for definition, the legislatures to be swayed and persuasive graffiti, vote for the legislations that are against essays their own wishes this for the sake of resorting there seats and app essay prompt, influence in the public perspective (Phil, 2008). Lobbyists also affect the lives of the good words essays, other individuals in the society this is felt and seen when the lobbyists will advocate for the implementation of the legislation laws of a given law that will be used by the government in running the country. The views of the lobbyists will not be representing the entire population interests, thus making it difficult for the less privileged individuals in the society to suffer the losses that they are not supposed to help them in the society that they live (Hahn, 2009).

An example is when the Obama government introduced a bill that aimed at apa phd reducing the prices of medical care that will also se a reduction of the prices of drugs and medical consultancy; There was a group of lobbyists that was lead by Tom Hamburger who was highly against words essays the bill by president Obama. He advocated that the legislatures should not vote in favor of the of the Obama health bill as it will provide a large percentage of the American citizens with proper and essay graffiti, improved medical attention as opposed to the past where the only the wealthy would be in a position of getting the best medical attention. The passing of the Obama medical plan ensured that the majority of Americans had easy access to medical attention and cover incase the s bill failed the section that will suffer the most will be the poor this is because they will not be able to afford the medical cover that the government will be offering to them. In Conclusion it is noted that the lobbyists have played an important role in the country's economy, political and social. This is because they have to some point ensured that they are in a position advocating for the passing of bills that will be able to manage the country and ensure that the country will pass bills that will be used in for definition essays, managing the country (Phil, 2008). And from the analysis that has been previously conducted the Lobbyists have been seen to diversity without fracturing, be individuals that are responsible for the many ills that have befallen the government.

This is because they are believed to be individuals that have been pushing the government and other senior government to implement laws that will help them succeed without considering the for definition essays, views and demands of the citizens that forms the large percentages of the American population.

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2017-18 Common Application Essay Prompts: A Guide. Looking for help with the 2017-18 Common Application Essay? Below CEA’s Founder, Stacey Brook, breaks down all you need to know about this year’s prompts. Stacey Brook, Founder and Chief Advisor. Hello, students and parents of the future class of 2022! The time has come. The Common App essay prompts for good words for definition 2017-18 have just been released and—spoiler alert—they’re pretty much the same as last year’s, with a few small but notable changes. Of the five prompts we have come to subject know and love so well, two remain exactly the same, and three have undergone minor makeovers to good for definition essays expand the uc common app essay reach of essays each question and the breadth of a student’s potential responses.

The Common App has also added two new prompts to the pot, one of which is a return to the much-coveted “topic of your choice.” (Cue the confetti!) So 2017-18 college applicants will now have seven (that’s right, seven ) essay prompts to choose from. All of these changes are good news for applicants, who are freer than ever to explore essay topics of all tones, styles, and subjects, and who now have a few extra cues at their fingertips to on celebrating diversity fracturing communities help ignite their creativity. These personal stories and feats of insight will again be relegated to 650 words, which equates to a little more than a single-spaced page. We happen to believe this is the perfect amount of space in which to make a quick and powerful impression with admissions (or write a comprehensive fan letter to Beyonce), so as far as we’re concerned, you’re golden. Because we are committed to getting you the most timely and good essays comprehensive essay advice on the interweb, we have made a guide to help you navigate the ins and outs of all seven prompts. For those who have been using last year’s prompts as a reference up until now, we have noted which selections have been adjusted for the 2017-18 application cycle, and which prompts are new altogether. Before you dive (or cannonball!) into our pool of apa phd thesis essay advice, we’d like to good leave you with one last little secret: the prompts are not actually as important as you think they are. Biology Senior? In fact, in our instructional video series and words essays private advising, we encourage applicants to root around for their most meaningful stories first and consider the persuasive essay prompts later. This is a process we call the Backwards Brainstorm, and you can learn more about it here.

For now, the main point we want you to take away is this: The prompts don#8217;t really matter . What matters is the story you want to tell. (And that you floss at least every other day—trust us, it will pay off in the long run.) We are as sure as ever that every single one of you has a valuable story (or two or twelve!) to communicate to good for definition essays admissions. All it takes is ample time for reflection and a little writerly elbow grease to find it. So take a peek at apa phd thesis citation what the 2017-18 application has in store for you, absorb what these prompts are really asking, and then forget about them (really!) as you explore the endless possibilities. Words Essays? PROMPT #1: Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. Essay Without Fracturing? [No change] The Common App’s Prompt #1 is the Old Faithful of essay questions. It’s been around for years and offers all the good words for definition flexibility an applicant could ask for from a prompt, with just enough direction to get those creative fountains flowing. Focus on thesis the key words “background,” “identity,” “interest,” and “talent” and use them as launch points for your brainstorming. What about your history, personality, hobbies, or accomplishments might be worth highlighting for good an admissions officer?

It can be something as small as seeing an episode of a television show (are you living life in the Upside Down?) or as large as the struggle of moving to a foreign country (especially if you had to uc common app essay leave behind grandma’s cooking). The most important thing to consider for this prompt is that your subject and/or perspective is dynamic and specific to you and who you are and no one else. Some questions to good for definition essays ask yourself as you brainstorm: What about my history or background sets me apart from app essay prompt, my peers? How do I define myself? How do the people who are closest to good me define me? What have I achieved that has been integral in molding my character and persuasive essay graffiti ambitions?

What, in my seventeen years on this earth, has helped shape the person I am today? And some examples to for definition essays consider: Has your family’s love of food and your resultant adventurous tastes and subject of my thesis culinary curiosity allowed you to connect with cultures from around the world? Does your crazy, dyed-blue hair define you? Did going to good for definition a Picasso exhibit inspire you to start an art collection that has since expanded beyond the of my borders of your bedroom? Have your yearly trips to see your extended family in China revealed something to you about your parents’ ability to overcome challenges and the work ethic you have absorbed as a result? What are the challenges and rewards of having same-sex parents? Or of being raised by your siblings? Or of for definition being part of thesis a family made up of stepsisters and stepbrothers? Overall, this prompt is good words for definition essays what we at College Essay Advisors call a “choose-your-own-adventure” prompt. It has historically served as a fabulous catch-all for subjects that don’t fit within the confines of the other prompt options.

A recent addition to the Common App’s prompt selection now offers even more freedom to applicants (more on prompt that later), but students should still think of Prompt #1 as a topic of immense choice, reeled in by a few helpful guidelines. PROMPT #2: The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure . Words Essays? How did it affect you, and citation what did you learn from the words for definition essays experience? [Revisions in italics] We have always believed that essays about overcoming obstacles are most effective when they focus more on is catton thesis solutions than problems. Accordingly, students’ responses to Prompt #2 should be directed at for definition a student’s response, outlook, and demeanor when presented with one of life’s many hurdles, and applicants should aim to showcase qualities like resilience, determination, and humility. The obstacles you choose to explore can vary widely in nature, especially with the uc common recent additions that allow students to good essays explore challenges and setbacks in addition to failures. They can be as serious as being tormented by persuasive essay graffiti art, bullies, as ingrained as the financial issues that have plagued your family for years, or as seemingly pedestrian as a mistake that costs you a tip while waiting tables.

While the possibilities are almost endless, students should be careful not to choose challenges that may seem trite (the inability to achieve an A on an exam and/or secure tickets to that Drake concert) or that illustrate a lapse in good judgment (that time you crashed your car or ate 15 bags of Cheetos in one sitting). Still, if you can isolate an incident of trial in for definition, your life and apa phd thesis citation how you learned from it, this can be a rewarding prompt to explore. Good For Definition? Some key questions to consider: How do you deal with hardship? What qualifies as a challenge or setback in your life and art world? Are you the kind of person who can rebound—who turns every experience, good or bad, into one from which you can learn something?

What experiences might illustrate this quality? What have been some of the good major challenges you’ve encountered in your life, and was there a silver lining? And a few examples to think about: Has a lifelong battle with stuttering ultimately increased your overall confidence and allowed you to participate in social activities and public forums without self-judgment? Did a parent’s fragile health situation challenge you to take on more responsibilities than the average teenager? Did a series of setbacks on your road to apa phd citation becoming a child actor introduce you to screenwriting, your professional goal and biggest passion? Did your failure to follow directions lead you to a botched home science experiment (root beer explosion!) and an appreciation for a balance of creativity and planned procedure? Overall, try to words for definition keep these stories as positive as possible.

Remember, these essays are not just contemplative musings on your toughest times or reflections on the hiccups that populate everyday life (though these things can certainly be touched upon); they are also about overcoming obstacles and refusing to submit to life’s greatest challenges. Subject? PROMPT #3: Reflect on good words a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking ? What was the outcome ? [Revisions in italics] This remains one of the most challenging prompts of the Common App’s selection, even though it has become slightly friendlier with the addition of the option to discuss a time you questioned an on celebrating fracturing, idea instead of challenging it. This prompt requires a student to speak passionately about beliefs and ideology, which are often onerous subjects that can be difficult to mold into compact stories. It can be one of the hardest questions to steer in a positive, productive direction without traveling into preachy, overly didactic territory. This is also a more precarious prompt than most in words, that students need to carefully assess the risks of espousing beliefs that might be polarizing for the readers of their applications. That said, a response to this prompt can be incisive and of my thesis deeply personal, as it was for a student who stood up to her parents’ old-fashioned outlook on feminism.

Applicants who can articulate their thoughts and good for definition essays feelings while showcasing malleability and willingness to thoughtfully consider the ideas of persuasive graffiti art others will likely stand out as valuable additions to essays any campus. If this prompt jumps out at you because you have a very specific story to tell or opinion to voice, run with it! Consider these questions as you brainstorm: When has your opinion been unpopular? Why are you the essay without fracturing kind of person who is willing to essays stand up for what you believe in? What is important to biology you on a fundamental level of morals and good values?

How passionate are you about the where is catton thesis things you believe in? And here are a few examples for you to ponder: Are you openly gay in a strict Catholic school environment, and for definition what has that meant for your self-esteem and personal relationships? Did you work as an intern on without fracturing a political campaign caught at the center of a scandal? How did you react? Did you challenge the idea of good words horror as a throwaway genre by executing an extensive research paper on tufts biology thesis the subject, launching a horror movie club at school, and arranging the most elaborate, best-received haunted house your neighborhood has ever seen? Your essay does not have to good for definition be focused around a fundamentally serious or groundbreaking issue (see the horror genre example above). On Celebrating Fracturing? What matters most when responding to this prompt is that you have strong convictions about the belief or idea you are trying to convey, and that you examine the words for definition personal effects of diversity without communities this ethos on your life and world. For this reason, Prompt #3 can be a great vehicle for showcasing your consideration, persuasive skills, and passions to admissions. Good? PROMPT #4: Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma-anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and of my thesis what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. [No change] We love Prompt #4, which asks students to for definition essays talk about a problem and how they solved or are planning to solve it.

This question is similar to Prompt #2 in that it is meant to tease out a student’s problem-solving skills and provide a glimpse into an applicant’s frame of uc common mind when dealing with challenges. It also provides a few bonus opportunities for creative expression, leaving both the scale and the time frame for setting up a problem/solution wide open. Students should think about everything from more traditional obstacles they have had to overcome to good the small predicaments that have inspired them to think about what they really value. Applicants should also keep in mind that this prompt can be approached from an aspirational perspective. In other words: you don’t simply have to choose from tufts biology thesis, problems you’ve already solved. Think about what challenges the future might bring, both personally and on a global scale.

How might you be part of for definition meaningful progress and problem-solving moving forward? Some other questions to citation ponder: When have you been proactive in attempting to effect change? What inspires you to action? What kind of mark would you like to leave on for definition essays the world? How do you think you can positively contribute to a cause that is important to you? If you had the power to make a lasting impact in persuasive art, any area at all, what would it be? And examples to use as food for thought: Has your love of nature inspired you to start a charity to help save local endangered species? Did your desire to good for definition make a stronger, non-tearable hockey lace launch you on an entrepreneurial adventure you never fully anticipated? Has your commitment to pursuing medical research inspired you to persuasive essay graffiti contact your favorite professors and good for definition researchers looking for summer lab positions, and to thesis read every scientific paper you can get your hands on?

It is important that the problem you choose is linked to your life and world in a meaningful way. The whole purpose of this essay-writing exercise is to good words reveal something valuable about uc common prompt, yourself to admissions, so be sure to link the problem you highlight to your passions, actions, or aspirations. And don’t forget to detail at least a few steps you would/could take to good words for definition solve your chosen quandary. Subject Of My? While the prompts don’t really matter in the initial conception phases of an good words for definition essays, essay (as you now know), once you’ve backed into your prompt of apa phd citation choice, following instructions to the fullest and answering all parts of each question are critical. PROMPT #5: Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others . Essays? [Revisions in italics] This is the most heavily revised of last year’s prompts, which used to ask students to describe a transition from childhood to adulthood. The purview of the inquiry has been expanded to ask about personal growth in general, leaving the lessons and timing of an applicant’s transformation more open-ended. Students are also now free to reflect on a “realization” in addition to an “event” or “occurrence.” While a realization that changes your understanding of the world will likely be sparked by a concrete marker (i.e., an event or accomplishment), we are happy to take the added flexibility from you, Common App. Thank you very much.

There are a few things to note when unpacking this prompt. Keep in mind that the words “accomplishment” and subject of my “event” leave themselves open to interpretation; thus, an essay inspired by essays, this question can tackle anything from a formal event to subject a very small occurrence. A formal event or accomplishment might include anything from words, obvious landmarks like birthdays or weddings, to achievements like earning an award or receiving a promotion. More informal examples might include something as simple as meeting a special person in your life, taking a car ride, or eating a particularly meaningful meal. We have often found that smaller, less formal events make for more surprising and memorable essays, but as with any of the other prompts, as long as you can answer with originality and essay diversity fracturing put a unique twist on your subject matter, all ideas, formal or informal, big or small, are fair game. Your reflection on what you learned and how you grew will be a source of great insight for admissions, and you want to make sure your essay highlights the words for definition intangible qualities that don’t show up anywhere else on an application. Some other things to where is catton statement consider: How do you react to periods of transition? What inspires a change in your perspective? When have you had a “eureka” moment, and how has it impacted the way you lived your life thereafter? What were the moments in for definition, life that fundamentally changed you as a person?

When did you learn something that made you feel more adult, more capable, more grown up? Did your expansion of a handmade stationery hobby into a full-fledged business give you the motivation and wherewithal to combat the effects of a debilitating illness? Have you learned to love the thesis citation football team playback sessions that force you to routinely examine your mistakes but also to good words for definition welcome constructive criticism and where is catton thesis statement point yourself toward self-improvement? Did a summer-long role as the U.S. President in a mock government and diplomacy exercise bring out leadership skills you never knew you had? What did playing bridge at a senior citizens’ home each week show you about the value of enjoyment over good words for definition essays, competition? How did this change the subject thesis way you interact and connect with others? The most important thing to keep in mind when searching for these moments is the element of growth, understanding, and transformation.

The event, accomplishment, or realization you discuss should be something that helped you understand the world around you through a different, more mature lens. And, as with Prompt #4, be sure to answer all parts of the question. PROMPT #6: Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? [New!!] This is one of the Common App’s brand new additions for the 2017-18 application cycle, and we cannot contain our nerdy excitement, especially since this prompt was built to good highlight a student’s inner nerd. Thesis? College, one could argue, is largely about the good pursuit of knowledge, so you can imagine it would be quite appealing for an admissions officer to uc common app essay have a meter for your level of self-motivated learning, along with a better understanding of how and why you choose to pay attention to the things that intrigue you.

This is a full-on peek into your brain: how you process information, how you seek out words for definition, new sources of content and inspiration. How resourceful are you when your curiosity is piqued to the fullest? The answer to this prompt should also reveal something to admissions about the breadth or depth of apa phd your interests. For example, if you’re interested in studying astrophysics, you might choose to discuss a concept that shows how far your exploration of the good essays sciences truly reaches. Thesis? How consumed are you by good words for definition essays, this passion you are choosing to subject of my pursue academically? Some key questions to consider: What floats your boat? Do you have an appetite for knowledge about good words essays, something specific? Or as we’ve asked in essay graffiti art, the breakdown for good words for definition Prompt #1: What do you love, and why do you love it?

What lengths have you gone to in order to thesis acquire new information about or experiences related to words for definition a topic of prompt interest? How do you typically seek to good enrich your knowledge when something appeals to you? Do you have a favorite corner or the library (or internet)? A mentor who is on celebrating fracturing open to answering your burning questions? What about the process of learning, especially about subjects that call out to you, is good for definition satisfying? And a few examples to get those wheels turning: Did the idea of open source code inspire you to create a tech startup with a few of your friends? What projects do you work on, and why is the idea of sharing information still so revolutionary? Did getting an internship at an accounting firm inspire you to start each day by essay on celebrating fracturing communities, checking the good for definition markets? Do you participate in a mock trading club that allows you to use the expertise you gather from biology, culling through economic news and analysis online and beyond? On any given Sunday morning, will we find you lost in the literature of Kurt Vonnegut or immersed in a collection of stories by Isaac Asimov? Have you taught yourself to good essays master the compositions of Mozart and Beethoven and break down the apa phd citation songs of good words for definition Bruno Mars by ear in your spare time?

Do you have an obsession with pizza so intense it led you to study bread-making and keep a pizza journal that documents the 700+ slices you’ve consumed thus far? (We know someone who did this—really.) How is pizza-making more scientific and/or artistic than the average person realizes? Whatever you’re into, embrace it. Show your feathers. Let your freak flag fly (within reason, obvs). This prompt is where is catton statement about the pursuit of knowledge and good your desire to proactively challenge yourself. Whether you are devouring the classics on thesis statement your Kindle or nerding out over the perfect cheese for calzone-making, your attachment to good a subject may inspire admissions to want to learn more about it…and you. PROMPT #7: Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. Thesis? [New!!] IT FINALLY HAPPENED. The return, not of the king, not of the words for definition essays Jedi, not even of the where is catton statement Mack, but of the topic of your choice. Feared by some, coveted by others, and good legendary in its existence, regardless of of my thesis where you stand on the issue, this is a newsworthy edition to the 2017-18 Common App prompt choices.

For years, students have been treating Prompt #1 (which asks about your background, etc.) as Topic of Your Choice Light—it wasn’t exactly the delicious, full-freedom version students were looking for, but they were able to make it work in a pinch. Perhaps it was the Coalition Application’s inclusion of a topic of your choice in their first-ever round of essay topic options (which will remain the same this year) that pressured the Common App to bring back the any-flavor-you-wish option to their application. Regardless of the reason, applicants around the world likely let out good words for definition, a big exhale when they saw they could serve up a big scoop of Prompt #7 to admissions this year. Tufts Biology Thesis? While we won’t know for sure until the Common App’s full release (which usually happens in August), we are guessing that students might be required to fill in a custom prompt to match their essay response for this true choose-your-own-adventure style query. For this reason, we recommend having a question of your own making at the ready if you choose to good essays take advantage of Prompt #7. It will be good to have it on hand, just in case, and it’s also a fun exercise in wrapping your head around what exactly you are trying to accomplish with the subject you’ve chosen and the essay you have created. Some questions to consider as you brainstorm, in addition to persuasive essay all of the ones we’ve posed thus far: What do you want admissions to good for definition essays know about you that they wouldn’t be able to glean from your transcript, test scores, or teacher recommendations? What are the stories that come up over and over again, at the dinner table or in the cafeteria with your friends, that might give admissions some insight into who you are and what is important to you? If you had ten minutes alone in a room with an admissions officer, what would you want to talk about or tell him or her about where is catton statement, yourself? What would you bring to a college campus that no one else would or could?

And a few examples of potential subjects and their related (custom!) prompts: Were you born with a congenital eye defect that literally (and metaphorically) affects how you see the words for definition essays world? ( Q: How is your perspective on the world unique?) Do you spend 40 minutes each Friday night tutoring a class of elementary school students in Cambodia? How has that impacted the thesis way you mete out your time and for definition essays assess your commitments? ( Q: What is the value of persuasive essay graffiti art 40 minutes?) Did your parents let your older brother choose your name? What was his inspiration? (Please tell us your name is Gaston.) What does your name represent for you? How has it impacted your interactions in for definition essays, the world? ( Q: What’s in essay diversity, a name?) While being able to write about whatever you wish sounds great in theory, some students find—especially at the beginning of the good words essays brainstorming process—that they are debilitated by the “topic of tufts senior your choice” option because it offers too much choice. If that is the case, fear not! Use some of the other prompts as starting points for your brainstorming and freewriting journeys. Words For Definition? Begin keeping a diary (now!) and jot down subjects, events, and memories as they float to essay without fracturing the surface.

Now that you have read our handy-dandy prompt guide and understand what admissions is looking for from these prompts, you could very well have a notebook filled with ideas that are ripe for expansion by the time you sit down to write. So don’t worry about having too many ideas, or not having enough ideas, especially at the beginning of the topic selection process. Once you figure out what you’d like to good say (and maybe even after you draft the crux of the essay itself), see if your concept fits one of the subject thesis first six prompts. Trying to good words for definition back into a more specific prompt option may inspire an interesting spin on the story you are trying to tell—one you may not have thought of subject otherwise. If, after careful consideration, your magic essay topic does not work within the words essays confines of Prompts 1-6, you are in uc common app essay, luck. The glorious, all-encompassing Prompt #7 will be here to catch you.

With some brainstorming and hard work, every student can uncover a story worth telling in response to one of these prompts. Remember, admissions wants a glimpse of your personality, your values, your interests and your passions. Good Words Essays? They want to get an idea of what kind of without attitude and words for definition essays energy you will bring to uc common the classroom and campus life. Essays? So take a few minutes to probe your memories, collect your stories and biology senior strike up that creative core. Every student has a fabulous essay inside of them – these prompts can help you find yours.

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Case Study: A Patient With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes and good words essays, Complex Comorbidities Whose Diabetes Care Is Managed by an Advanced Practice Nurse. The specialized role of nursing in the care and education of people with diabetes has been in existence for more than 30 years. Diabetes education carried out by nurses has moved beyond the hospital bedside into a variety of health care settings. Among the disciplines involved in diabetes education, nursing has played a pivotal role in the diabetes team management concept. This was well illustrated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) by the effectiveness of nurse managers in coordinating and delivering diabetes self-management education. These nurse managers not only senior thesis, performed administrative tasks crucial to the outcomes of the DCCT, but also participated directly in good for definition essays, patient care.1.

The emergence and subsequent growth of persuasive essay, advanced practice in nursing during the past 20 years has expanded the direct care component, incorporating aspects of both nursing and medical care while maintaining the teaching and for definition, counseling roles. Both the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) models, when applied to chronic disease management, create enhanced patient-provider relationships in which self-care education and counseling is provided within the context of disease state management. Clement2 commented in a review of diabetes self-management education issues that unless ongoing management is part of an education program, knowledge may increase but most clinical outcomes only minimally improve. Advanced practice nurses by the very nature of their scope of practice effectively combine both education and management into their delivery of care. Operating beyond the role of educator, advanced practice nurses holistically assess patients’ needs with the understanding of patients’ primary role in the improvement and maintenance of their own health and uc common app essay, wellness. For Definition Essays. In conducting assessments, advanced practice nurses carefully explore patients’ medical history and apa phd citation, perform focused physical exams. At the completion of assessments, advanced practice nurses, in conjunction with patients, identify management goals and determine appropriate plans of good words essays, care. A review of essay on celebrating diversity without, patients’ self-care management skills and application/adaptation to lifestyle is incorporated in initial histories, physical exams, and plans of care.

Many advanced practice nurses (NPs, CNSs, nurse midwives, and for definition, nurse anesthetists) may prescribe and adjust medication through prescriptive authority granted to them by their state nursing regulatory body. Currently, all 50 states have some form of prescriptive authority for advanced practice nurses.3 The ability to prescribe and of my thesis, adjust medication is words for definition essays, a valuable asset in caring for individuals with diabetes. It is a crucial component in the care of thesis citation, people with type 1 diabetes, and it becomes increasingly important in the care of patients with type 2 diabetes who have a constellation of comorbidities, all of which must be managed for successful disease outcomes. Many studies have documented the good essays, effectiveness of advanced practice nurses in apa phd citation, managing common primary care issues.4 NP care has been associated with a high level of satisfaction among health services consumers. In diabetes, the role of good words for definition essays, advanced practice nurses has significantly contributed to improved outcomes in the management of type 2 diabetes,5 in where is catton, specialized diabetes foot care programs,6 in the management of diabetes in essays, pregnancy,7 and in the care of pediatric type 1 diabetic patients and their parents.8,9 Furthermore, NPs have also been effective providers of diabetes care among disadvantaged urban African-American patients.10 Primary management of these patients by NPs led to uc common app essay prompt, improved metabolic control regardless of whether weight loss was achieved. The following case study illustrates the clinical role of advanced practice nurses in good essays, the management of a patient with type 2 diabetes. A.B. is a retired 69-year-old man with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes. Although he was diagnosed in 1997, he had symptoms indicating hyperglycemia for 2 years before diagnosis. He had fasting blood glucose records indicating values of 118–127 mg/dl, which were described to him as indicative of “borderline diabetes.” He also remembered past episodes of nocturia associated with large pasta meals and on celebrating without communities, Italian pastries. At the time of initial diagnosis, he was advised to words for definition, lose weight (“at least 10 lb.”), but no further action was taken.

Referred by his family physician to thesis, the diabetes specialty clinic, A.B. presents with recent weight gain, suboptimal diabetes control, and foot pain. Essays. He has been trying to lose weight and increase his exercise for the past 6 months without success. He had been started on apa phd thesis citation, glyburide (Diabeta), 2.5 mg every morning, but had stopped taking it because of words essays, dizziness, often accompanied by sweating and a feeling of mild agitation, in thesis, the late afternoon. A.B. also takes atorvastatin (Lipitor), 10 mg daily, for hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and good for definition essays, elevated triglycerides). Without. He has tolerated this medication and adheres to the daily schedule. During the past 6 months, he has also taken chromium picolinate, gymnema sylvestre, and a “pancreas elixir” in an attempt to improve his diabetes control.

He stopped these supplements when he did not see any positive results. He does not test his blood glucose levels at home and expresses doubt that this procedure would help him improve his diabetes control. “What would knowing the numbers do for me?,” he asks. Good. “The doctor already knows the sugars are high.” A.B. states that he has “never been sick a day in my life.” He recently sold his business and has become very active in a variety of volunteer organizations. He lives with his wife of tufts biology senior thesis, 48 years and has two married children. Although both his mother and words essays, father had type 2 diabetes, A.B. has limited knowledge regarding diabetes self-care management and states that he does not understand why he has diabetes since he never eats sugar. In the past, his wife has encouraged him to treat his diabetes with herbal remedies and weight-loss supplements, and she frequently scans the Internet for the latest diabetes remedies. During the past year, A.B. has gained 22 lb. Apa Phd Thesis. Since retiring, he has been more physically active, playing golf once a week and gardening, but he has been unable to good for definition essays, lose more than 2–3 lb. He has never seen a dietitian and subject of my, has not been instructed in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). A.B.’s diet history reveals excessive carbohydrate intake in the form of bread and pasta. His normal dinners consist of 2 cups of good for definition, cooked pasta with homemade sauce and three to four slices of tufts biology thesis, Italian bread.

During the for definition essays, day, he often has “a slice or two” of bread with butter or olive oil. Thesis Citation. He also eats eight to ten pieces of fresh fruit per day at meals and as snacks. He prefers chicken and fish, but it is usually served with a tomato or cream sauce accompanied by pasta. Good Words Essays. His wife has offered to make him plain grilled meats, but he finds them “tasteless.” He drinks 8 oz. of red wine with dinner each evening. He stopped smoking more than 10 years ago, he reports, “when the cost of cigarettes topped a buck-fifty.” The medical documents that A.B. brings to senior, this appointment indicate that his hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) has never been 8%. Good For Definition Essays. His blood pressure has been measured at 150/70, 148/92, and 166/88 mmHg on separate occasions during the past year at the local senior center screening clinic. Although he was told that his blood pressure was “up a little,” he was not aware of the need to keep his blood pressure ?130/80 mmHg for both cardiovascular and renal health.11. A.B. has never had a foot exam as part of his primary care exams, nor has he been instructed in preventive foot care.

However, his medical records also indicate that he has had no surgeries or hospitalizations, his immunizations are up to date, and, in persuasive essay graffiti, general, he has been remarkably healthy for many years. A physical examination reveals the following: Weight: 178 lb; height: 5?2?; body mass index (BMI): 32.6 kg/m 2. Fasting capillary glucose: 166 mg/dl. Blood pressure: lying, right arm 154/96 mmHg; sitting, right arm 140/90 mmHg. Pulse: 88 bpm; respirations 20 per minute. Eyes: corrective lenses, pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation, Fundi-clear, no arteriolovenous nicking, no retinopathy.

Lungs: clear to auscultation. Heart: Rate and rhythm regular, no murmurs or gallops. Vascular assessment: no carotid bruits; femoral, popliteal, and dorsalis pedis pulses 2+ bilaterally. Neurological assessment: diminished vibratory sense to the forefoot, absent ankle reflexes, monofilament (5.07 Semmes-Weinstein) felt only above the ankle. Results of laboratory tests (drawn 5 days before the office visit) are as follows: Glucose (fasting): 178 mg/dl (normal range: 65–109 mg/dl) Creatinine: 1.0 mg/dl (normal range: 0.5–1.4 mg/dl) Blood urea nitrogen: 18 mg/dl (normal range: 7–30 mg/dl) Sodium: 141 mg/dl (normal range: 135–146 mg/dl) Potassium: 4.3 mg/dl (normal range: 3.5–5.3 mg/dl) • Total cholesterol: 162 mg/dl (normal: 200 mg/dl)

• HDL cholesterol: 43 mg/dl (normal: ?40 mg/dl) • LDL cholesterol (calculated): 84 mg/dl (normal: 100 mg/dl) • Triglycerides: 177 mg/dl (normal: 150 mg/dl) • Cholesterol-to-HDL ratio: 3.8 (normal: 5.0) AST: 14 IU/l (normal: 0–40 IU/l) ALT: 19 IU/l (normal: 5–40 IU/l)

Alkaline phosphotase: 56 IU/l (normal: 35–125 IU/l) A1C: 8.1% (normal: 4–6%) Urine microalbumin: 45 mg (normal: 30 mg) Based on A.B.’s medical history, records, physical exam, and lab results, he is assessed as follows: Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (A1C 7%) Obesity (BMI 32.4 kg/m 2 ) Hyperlipidemia (controlled with atorvastatin)

Peripheral neuropathy (distal and words, symmetrical by exam) Hypertension (by previous chart data and exam) Elevated urine microalbumin level. Self-care management/lifestyle deficits. • High carbohydrate intake. • No SMBG program. Poor understanding of diabetes.

A.B. presented with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and of my thesis, a complex set of comorbidities, all of which needed treatment. The first task of the NP who provided his care was to select the most pressing health care issues and prioritize his medical care to address them. Good Words. Although A.B. stated that his need to thesis, lose weight was his chief reason for seeking diabetes specialty care, his elevated glucose levels and his hypertension also needed to be addressed at the initial visit. The patient and good essays, his wife agreed that a referral to a dietitian was their first priority. A.B. acknowledged that he had little dietary information to help him achieve weight loss and that his current weight was unhealthy and “embarrassing.” He recognized that his glucose control was affected by large portions of bread and diversity without, pasta and agreed to start improving dietary control by reducing his portion size by one-third during the week before his dietary consultation.

Weight loss would also be an important first step in reducing his blood pressure. The NP contacted the registered dietitian (RD) by telephone and referred the patient for a medical nutrition therapy assessment with a focus on weight loss and good words essays, improved diabetes control. A.B.’s appointment was scheduled for the following week. The RD requested that during the intervening week, the patient keep a food journal recording his food intake at meals and snacks. She asked that the patient also try to is catton thesis statement, estimate portion sizes. Although his physical activity had increased since his retirement, it was fairly sporadic and weather-dependent. After further discussion, he realized that a week or more would often pass without any significant form of exercise and that most of his exercise was seasonal.

Whatever weight he had lost during the summer was regained in good words essays, the winter, when he was again quite sedentary. A.B.’s wife suggested that the two of them could walk each morning after breakfast. She also felt that a treadmill at home would be the best solution for getting sufficient exercise in essay on celebrating communities, inclement weather. After a short discussion about the positive effect exercise can have on glucose control, the patient and for definition essays, his wife agreed to is catton thesis, walk 15–20 minutes each day between 9:00 and 10:00 a.m. A first-line medication for this patient had to be targeted to improving glucose control without contributing to weight gain. Thiazolidinediones (i.e., rosiglitizone [Avandia] or pioglitizone [Actos]) effectively address insulin resistance but have been associated with weight gain.12 A sulfonylurea or meglitinide (i.e., repaglinide [Prandin]) can reduce postprandial elevations caused by good essays increased carbohydrate intake, but they are also associated with some weight gain.12 When glyburide was previously prescribed, the patient exhibited signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (unconfirmed by tufts thesis SMBG). ?-Glucosidase inhibitors (i.e., acarbose [Precose]) can help with postprandial hyperglycemia rise by blunting the effect of the good essays, entry of carbohydrate-related glucose into the system. However, acarbose requires slow titration, has multiple gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, and reduces A1C by only 0.5–0.9%.13 Acarbose may be considered as a second-line therapy for A.B. but would not fully address his elevated A1C results. Metformin (Glucophage), which reduces hepatic glucose production and improves insulin resistance, is not associated with hypoglycemia and can lower A1C results by 1%. Although GI side effects can occur, they are usually self-limiting and of my thesis, can be further reduced by slow titration to good words for definition essays, dose efficacy.14. After reviewing these options and discussing the need for improved glycemic control, the NP prescribed metformin, 500 mg twice a day.

Possible GI side effects and the need to avoid alcohol were of thesis, concern to A.B., but he agreed that medication was necessary and good for definition essays, that metformin was his best option. The NP advised him to take the medication with food to reduce GI side effects. The NP also discussed with the patient a titration schedule that increased the dosage to 1,000 mg twice a day over a 4-week period. Persuasive Essay. She wrote out this plan, including a date and time for telephone contact and medication evaluation, and gave it to the patient. During the visit, A.B. and words essays, his wife learned to use a glucose meter that features a simple two-step procedure. The patient agreed to use the meter twice a day, at breakfast and dinner, while the metformin dose was being titrated. He understood the need for glucose readings to guide the choice of on celebrating without communities, medication and to evaluate the effects of good for definition essays, his dietary changes, but he felt that it would not be “a forever thing.” The NP reviewed glycemic goals with the patient and his wife and assisted them in deciding on initial short-term goals for weight loss, exercise, and medication. Glucose monitoring would serve as a guide and assist the patient in where is catton thesis statement, modifying his lifestyle.

A.B. drew the line at words for definition essays starting an apa phd antihypertensive medication—the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril (Vasotec), 5 mg daily. He stated that one new medication at good words a time was enough and is catton thesis statement, that “too many medications would make a sick man out of me.” His perception of the good for definition, state of his health as being represented by the number of medications prescribed for him gave the persuasive essay, advanced practice nurse an important insight into good words the patient’s health belief system. The patient’s wife also believed that a “natural solution” was better than medication for treating blood pressure. Although the use of an app essay ACE inhibitor was indicated both by the level of good for definition essays, hypertension and by the presence of apa phd thesis, microalbuminuria, the decision to wait until the next office visit to further evaluate the good words essays, need for antihypertensive medication afforded the patient and his wife time to consider the thesis, importance of adding this pharmacotherapy. Good Words. They were quite willing to read any materials that addressed the prevention of on celebrating diversity fracturing, diabetes complications.

However, both the good words essays, patient and his wife voiced a strong desire to focus their energies on persuasive essay graffiti, changes in good words essays, food and physical activity. The NP expressed support for their decision. Because A.B. was obese, weight loss would be beneficial for many of tufts biology senior, his health issues. Because he has a sedentary lifestyle, is 35 years old, has hypertension and peripheral neuropathy, and is being treated for hypercholestrolemia, the NP performed an electrocardiogram in words essays, the office and persuasive graffiti, referred the patient for an exercise tolerance test.11 In doing this, the NP acknowledged and respected the mutually set goals, but also provided appropriate pre-exercise screening for the patient’s protection and good, safety. In her role as diabetes educator, the NP taught A.B. and his wife the importance of foot care, demonstrating to the patient his inability to feel the light touch of the monofilament. She explained that the loss of protective sensation from peripheral neuropathy means that he will need to be more vigilant in checking his feet for any skin lesions caused by poorly fitting footwear worn during exercise. At the conclusion of the visit, the NP assured A.B. App Essay. that she would share the plan of care they had developed with his primary care physician, collaborating with him and good words, discussing the findings of any diagnostic tests and procedures. She would also work in partnership with the RD to uc common prompt, reinforce medical nutrition therapies and improve his glucose control. In this way, the NP would facilitate the words for definition essays, continuity of care and keep vital pathways of communication open. Advanced practice nurses are ideally suited to apa phd thesis citation, play an integral role in good words, the education and medical management of people with diabetes.15 The combination of clinical skills and of my, expertise in words for definition essays, teaching and counseling enhances the delivery of care in a manner that is of my thesis, both cost-reducing and effective.

Inherent in good for definition, the role of thesis, advanced practice nurses is the understanding of shared responsibility for good for definition health care outcomes. This partnering of nurse with patient not only improves care but strengthens the patient’s role as self-manager. Geralyn Spollett, MSN, C-ANP, CDE, is persuasive art, associate director and an adult nurse practitioner at the Yale Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, at good words essays Yale University in New Haven, Conn. She is an associate editor of Diabetes Spectrum. Note of disclosure: Ms. Spollett has received honoraria for speaking engagements from app essay, Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Aventis and has been a paid consultant for Aventis. Both companies produce products and good for definition essays, devices for senior the treatment of diabetes.

2017 by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Spectrum Print ISSN: 1040-9165, Online ISSN: 1944-7353 .