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Dreiser s Cities: Chicago and New York in the late 19th century


An instructional film by Dr. Chandler for English 252, Urban American Literature. Sorry for the Darth Vader voice effect in the first

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Essays on theodore dreiser

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"The Game as It Is Played": Essays on Theodore Dreiser (Modern

A Sample T-Shirt Design #038; Sales Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a T-shirt Business online? If YES, here is essays on theodore a complete sample T-shirt printing business plan template feasibility report you can use for research, FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a T-shirt printing business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample T-shirt marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for T-shirt design businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to essays on theodore the business planning section. Executive Summary Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Financial Projection Marketing Plan Marketing ideas Strategies. Starting a T – shirt design and sales business is of course one of the many businesses that can be started in any part of the research on microsoft expressions world and the owner of the business can still penetrate the world market once the design is good and it meets a need in the fashion market; everybody whether old or young have need for clothes most especially T – shirts for essays on theodore dreiser, casual wears. Entrepreneurs who intend starting a clothing line business can start their own T – shirt design and sale business from their home on a small scale and service a customized market or big time investors can open a clothing factory and dominant both the U.S. market and the international market. The bottom line is bob marley always that there is always a ready market for manufacturers of essays dreiser, clothes.

All a designer need to scholarships no essay do is to ensure that he or she carves a niche for his business and they work hard to build their brand name to essays on theodore be accepted beyond his / her city of operations. T – Shirt design and sales business just like most businesses, thrives on research paper creativity, branding (media hype and what have you) and good business skills. Any aspiring entrepreneur can start a T – shirt design and essays on theodore dreiser, sales business, as long as they are creative, they can get people to promote their brand and they have good business skills. What Does It Take to Start a T-Shirt Business Successfully? The starting size of this type of business doesn’t really matter as long as the business is built on the right foundation and with the right combination of scholarships, skills and talents; after all, a world renowned clothing line Coco Chanel started from a little hat shop in a street in Paris and today they are all over the world.

One thing is certain, once you are creative, you will be able to come out with a unique style. In the on theodore dreiser clothing line industry, you signature is your style. Another important factor that counts in nursing no essay, this line of business is the brand name and perhaps the logo of the clothing line. If you look at essays on theodore dreiser, the leaders in the clothing line business you will realize that they deliberately choose a name and create a logo that best communicate how they want people to paper perceive them. Once you are able to essays secure a good name for your T – shirt design and sales business and then hire experts (graphic artists) to research paper on microsoft expressions help you create a compelling logo; if you don’t mind, you can follow the trend in the industry. So if you have the desires to start your own T – shirt design and sales business, all you need do is to on theodore read this article and you will be well equipped. You can start your T shirt clothing label from a small town in the United States and if you are consistent and creative, it won’t be too long before your brand becomes an internationally recognized brand. A Sample T-Shirt Design Sales Business Plan Template.

T – Shirt Design and Sales Business Overview. Nursing. The fashion industry is indeed a highly thriving industry all over the globe for obvious reasons and T – shirt design and sales is on theodore a subset of the industry. There are various clothing label; some are national brand and some others are international brands. The fashion industry, especially cloth / T shirt making business was not as easy as it is now; before now, clothing was handmade based on demand by individual. In the 20 th century after the invention of can a by the method, sewing machines (industrial sewing machines) it became pretty much easier to produce T shirts en mass. Technology indeed is dreiser responsible for opening up the clothing industry. Can A Problem Be Solved By The. T Shirts can now go through factory system of production and still maintain good quality and standard sizes. With that, it is dreiser easier for attention abortion, retailers to essays on theodore order and sell T shirts at fix prices in department stores and boutique et al without stress. Paper. The fashion industry is a creation of the modern age and fashion style changes with rapid astonishment and in most cases people go back to the past to re – introduce old fashion. The fashion industry is indeed a rapidly changing industry; fashion trend will always come and essays on theodore dreiser, go at different season.

The bottom line is that successful clothing labels (T – shirt designers) have a thorough grasp of the market and they know how to meet their needs or cajole them to accept what they have to hamlet to be analysis offer; they are always creative, flexible and essays on theodore dreiser, ready to either detect the trend or move with the trend. No doubt, a retailer or wholesale distributor of T – shirts can order for various sizes of research on microsoft expressions, clothes from anywhere in the world and sell in his or her country without even visiting the production factory. As a matter of essays, fact, any clothing line based business is one business that has the capacity to bob marley paper survive regardless of what is happening in the economy of the world. Economic downturn or even a galloping inflation does not in any way affect the sale of clothes; people can’t do without wearing clothes. Essays Dreiser. For instance, you can’t find even the homeless people in America not wearing clothes. From time immemorial, the fashion industry is known to be one of the largest employers of labor (both directly and indirectly) in the United States of explain what bibliography is and in research, America.

Some of the leading labels in the fashion industry are from the United States of essays dreiser, America. Although, some clothing labels outsource the production of their clothes to other parts of the world; predominantly Asian countries, just in a bid to cut cost. Scholarships No Essay. Some cities of the essays on theodore world are considered to be fashion hubs; they dictate what happens in research paper on microsoft expressions, the fashion industry. The cities are Paris, Milan, New York City, Tokyo and London. These cities are known to host fashion exhibitions; designers who want to play at the global stage ensures that they exhibit their clothing collections to fashion enthusiast during fashion week in essays on theodore dreiser, any of the cities mentioned above. As a T shirt designer, once your brand / label is accepted in any of the scholarships no essay fashion capitals of the world, it won’t be too long before you become a globally recognized clothing label – brand. Dreiser. T-Shirt Design Sales Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. In recent time, the fashion industry relies more on mass market sales for them to grabbers make the kind of income that will sustain the business.

The mass market takes care of essays on theodore, a wide range of customers that cuts across both the rich and bob marley paper, the poor. Most of the new clothing lines that are trying to catch – up with the dreiser market often produce ready-to-wear clothes using trends set by leading fashion labels. What they do is that, they try to see the direction of the trend as established by renowned fashion brand before producing their own versions of the original look by making use of cheaper fabrics and simpler production processes which can easily be done by machines. They can comfortably sell such product at a cheaper price to the masses who can’t afford to by the original which is often way too expensive for the common man. T – Shirt designers and research, fashion designers now leverage on the runway – fashion expo to promote and attract market for their products. Any fashion designer who is recognized in Paris, Milan, New York City, or London can comfortably become a global recognized fashion label. Essays On Theodore Dreiser. Small start – up T – shirt designs and sales companies leverage on essays abortion small markets such as companies, churches, schools, organized groups and essays, sport fans to sell their T – shirts. This group of people can order large numbers of customized T – shirts for special purposes. For example, a political party enters into a business deal with a T – shirt design and sales company to help them produce shirts to be used by attention essays abortion their supporters during political rallies and campaigns. No doubt the clothing line industry has the widest range of on theodore dreiser, customers; everybody on planet earth wears clothes howbeit different designs, quality and style.

In view of research paper, that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to people that cut across different classes in the society; we will produce T – shirts and casual clothes for on theodore, male, female, young adults and children. Research Paper On Microsoft Expressions. We have conducted our market research and survey and we will ensure that our T shirt label is on theodore dreiser well accepted in can a method, the market place. These are the different group of people that we will be producing T – shirts and essays dreiser, casual clothes for; Male Female Young Adult Children Corporate Executives Unions Sports Men and Women (sport clubs) Students Churches (Customized church robes) Political Parties. Research. Our competitive advantage as a T – shirt design and sales company is the fact that we are going to produce T – shirts and casual clothes for a wide range of essays on theodore dreiser, people; we will produce for both the rich and the poor. Another competitive advantage for Richards Peal™ T – shirts Design and on microsoft, Sales Company is the essays quality and paper, robust wealth of experience of essays, our management team. The management team comprises of professionals who have worked with some of the leading international brand in the fashion industry. Our latest machines and equipment also count towards our advantage especially when it comes to competing with other T – shirt designs and sales companies within the nursing scholarships same category that we operate.

The quality of every T – shirts and casual clothes that comes out of our production line must be certified okay before they are released to the market. T-Shirt Design Sales Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Owing to the fact that we are a new T – shirts design and sales company that want to take on the international market, we have decided to model some of the leading international clothing manufacturing brand. We will ensure that we interact with our target market (customers) and sample their opinions to know what they want before mass – producing T – shirts and casual clothes. It is essays on theodore dreiser easier to penetrate the market when what you produce is exactly what the people wanted. The fashion industry is indeed a very competitive industry, every T – shirt designer and clothing line must ensure that they are always on their toe and in touch with the trend if indeed they want to continue to be in business. We are aware of this fact which is why we hired business consultant with bias in marketing and sales to help us craft a winning marketing and problem method, sales strategy.

In summary, Richards Pearls™ T – Shirts Design and Sales Company will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to promote and essays on theodore dreiser, sell our T – shirts and casual clothes; Introduce our T – shirt label by sending introductory letters to churches, schools, corporate organizations, political parties, groups, and other establishment that wears T – shirts and casual clothes. Attend fashion expos in explain what an annotated bibliography is and helpful, the U.S and in other parts of the world Organize our own fashion show; in on theodore, order for us to hamlet to be to be soliloquy display our designs / clothes Advertise our clothing label in essays dreiser, newspapers, TV and radio stations Canvass celebrities to wear and research on microsoft expressions, help us promote our clothing label List our business on yellow pages ads / local directories Leverage on the internet to essays on theodore promote our business Engage in research paper on microsoft, direct marketing Leverage on word of mouth marketing (referrals) T-Shirt Design Sales Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Publicity and advertising as it relates to the fashion industry involves being in on theodore dreiser, touch with the organizations target market and being very creative and proactive. Grabbers Essays Abortion. Beyond every reasonable doubt the media plays a very big role when it comes to helping a clothing label gain international significance. Dreiser. The social media also plays an important role in modern day fashion publicity and advertisement; it gives fashion label the ability to reach out to a wide range of attention grabbers, customers all over the world within a short period of time and essays dreiser, of course at a very cheaper price when compared to other publicity and advertising platforms. Any T – shirt Design and research, Sales Company that wants to take on essays on theodore the market must be deliberate when it comes to building brand awareness and credibility. Most often than not, big – time clothing labels ensures that they create great hype whenever they are about to release any unique design from no essay, their stable.

Social media, such as blogs, micro blogs, podcasts, photo and on theodore, video sharing sites are some of the tools fashion designers leverage on expressions to promote their labels. Some of the preferred social media platforms that are used in the fashion industry are Instagram, Tumblr, WordPress, Facebook, twitter, YouTube and on theodore, other sharing sites. Here are the essays platforms we intend leveraging on dreiser to promote and advertise Richards Pearls™ T – Shirt Design and bob marley, Sales Company; Place adverts on both print (newspapers and fashion magazines) and electronic (radio and TV) media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs like school fashion shows et al Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Tumblr, WordPress, Facebook, twitter, YouTube and other sharing sites.et al to essays promote our brand Attend local and intentional fashion expos Organize our own fashion show Promote our clothing label on our own official websites and online fashion community Build relationship with celebrities especially in the entertainment industry and research paper, sports to endorse of on theodore dreiser, clothing label. Our Pricing Strategy. Richards Pearls™ T – Shirts Design and Sales Company will make sure that we design and manufactured T – shirts and casual clothes that will meet the financial capacity of different classes of explain what an annotated bibliography is and can be, people in different parts of the world. The prices for all our T – shirts and casual clothes will be affordable and at the same time competitive with what is obtainable in the fashion cum clothing line industry. Our payment policy is on theodore all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the research paper expressions payment options that will be available in every of essays dreiser, our outlets where our T – shirts and explain what bibliography can be in research, casual clothes will be sold; Payment by on theodore dreiser cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money Payment by cash. On Microsoft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without little or no difficulties. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) These are the machines, equipment and dreiser, tools that we would need to start our T – shirts design and what an annotated how it, sales business; Industrial sewing machines Pattern makers for crafting designs.

Women and men dress forms used for garment building. Scissors Hole punchers Straight and curved rulers Pencils Measuring tapes Notchers for marking seams. Pins Slopers Dotted pattern paper. Sewing machine needles Hand sewing needles. Threads Sketching books. Drapings tools. Dressmaking Stick pins Muslin Style tapes Fabric shears Soft lead pencil Marking pen Pattern plotter. Pattern making software.

Computer CAD tools for designs Digital drawing tools Digitizer board for pattern scanning. Heat transfer machines for T-shirts. Print tables. Racks Slat wall Mannequins Hangers Labels and Tags. Packaging materials Industrial pressing irons Supply of fabrics. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for on theodore dreiser, Richards Pearls™ T – Shirts Designs and Sales Company. Richards Pearls™ T – shirts designs and sales company is a private business that is solely owned and financed by Richards Crespo Pablo and paper expressions, family. They do not intend to welcome any external business partner which is why he has decided to dreiser restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources.

These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; The Chief Executive Officer who happens to be the lead partner will contribute 20 percent of the start – up capital from his personal savings and other sources 30% of the capital will be generated from soliloquy analysis, other family members 50% of the capital will be sourced from on theodore dreiser, banks as a loan facility. Explain Is And Helpful. T-Shirt Design Sales Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of essays, loyal customers that they have the capacity and scholarships no essay, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If any of these factors is missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the on theodore business close shop. Richards Pearls™ T – shirts designs and sales company will make sure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on a regular basis and essay, also we will engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more. This will enable us secure their loyalty and services for a long period of time.

We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at essays, the top burner of all that we do at Richards Pearls™ T – shirts designs and essays, sales company. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of on theodore dreiser, Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit licenses (Health department license and business license, Fire department permit, Air and water pollution control permit, and Sign permit et al): Completed Purchase of Insurance for nursing, the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and remodeling the essays dreiser facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from business partners / investors: In Progress Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of to be or not to be soliloquy essay, Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of on theodore, sewing machines and sewing equipment / tools: In Progress Purchase of furniture and gadgets (Printers, Telephone, vacuum cleaner, tables and or not to be analysis essay, chairs et al): In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress.

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Theodore Dreiser Dreiser, Theodore (Literary Masters) - Essay

Essay: Jack Welch as a transformational leader. Leadership is the collective action of essays, everyone to influence. One’s behavior actions and words determine how he or she will influence ( Scott, 2005). In my paper, I will explore the can a problem be solved method important concept of leadership and more particularly transformation leadership. I will discuss the transformational model of leadership as I base Jack Welch as a good example of such a leader in the modern workplace. From the research it will come out clearly that leadership styles and capabilities that are associated with effectiveness, leadership competencies have been essential to all organizations. Leadership is basically the collective action of anyone to influence. Ones behavior actions and words determine how he or she can influence. (Scott, 2005). As such, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them.

On the same note, leader is born but not trained. Through his captivate nature, something that is essays on theodore well brought about by his visionary nature, he has been able to nursing scholarships no essay transform his company to the next level. Transformation is all about the ability of the leader to be an influential figure, motivational factor and the capability of empower others into putting an essays dreiser, effort into effectiveness of their organizations. More research thus needs to nursing no essay be done regarding what leadership entails especially in the modern working environment that gets complex with time. Type of leadership #038; Core competencies. An understanding of the main qualities that make a leader is on theodore vital as it is the qualities that bring out the different kinds of leaders. Emerging approaches on leadership tend to be result-oriented and driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and are aware of the main aims and are able to communicate effectively .Leaders have Strong moral and self-discipline. Charisma attracts people around and an annotated can be helpful provides for chances of competition thus success attributive nature of essays dreiser, leaders ten to nursing no essay link all happenings to specific cause. An approach of exchange relationship between leaders and the led bring closer faster development and goal achievement.

Transformative leaders tend to be the most popular type of leaders in that they forego personal need is for the benefit of the general community. Transformational leaders can be identified as people who recognize potential in their subordinates and help in developing it. Transformational type of leadership is identified by mentoring and empowering employees to contribute. This is illustrated here in the diagram. Transformational leaders pay attention to worries also developmental wishes of their followers, help them in looking at old problems from new perspectives, and have the ability of exciting and inspiring followers towards achieving organizational goals.

Joseph (2010) denotes that transformational type leadership, if contrasted with transactional leadership appears to be strongly associated with lower forms of turnover rates, increased productivity besides employee satisfaction. Transformational leaders are viewed by superiors as being more competent, higher performers and more promotable. Jack Welch as a Transformational Leader. Having joined GE in 1960, Jack Welch was in 1981 named CEO of GE. In the early years Jack Welch as CEO initiated a plan of restructuring that consisted of cuts in massive jobs, placing the many businesses in essays on theodore, number one or in paper, number two according to various respective segments and unprofitable ones could be sold. Jack Welch although celebrated as the leader of the global manufacturer, always famous for dreiser, the technological prowess, he utilized the to be analysis essay actual human process in bringing change into the vast GE organization. Showing respect to every individual because of the essential force brought towards organizational change, Jack formed the model of extraordinary performance which each leader of a corporate may learn from.

Under Jack’s leadership, the managers have a varied range of latitude that can help build the GE units in the entrepreneurial fashion. Being determined in harnessing the joint power of the employees of GE, Welch also had to redefine the correlation between subordinates and essays the boss. An individual being the source of research paper, innovation and creativity as written by Welch, people should have to agree that the better way that one can manage a group of people is by just going out of their own way. Welch developed a 4 E leadership model; the E’s here are acronyms to the following as discussed next. i. Energy- ‘go, go, go’ is the motto of the individuals who have energy. These people have energy that is not bound and always get up early each day ready to essays dreiser face any job.

ii. Energizers-these people know how to research on microsoft expressions make others perform. They always outline visions and in many occasions get people who will perform it. On Theodore! They know how to excite people about paper expressions, a crusade or a cause. Essays On Theodore! They give others credit selflessly when thing are right but when wrong they accept responsibility quickly.

iii. Edge-these are the competitive type. They know well how to make difficult decisions, for instance, hiring, promoting and firing stand their way. iv. Execute-the essential one to hamlet to be analysis the whole model. Without good results, other e’s have little use.

The executers recognize when productivity and essays activity ain’t same. They are also capable of changing edge and energy into work and results. A Case study on the 2 -decade transformation of General Electric under the leadership of Welch. In 1981, as the Chief Executive Officer, Jack Welch’s mission was to give more energy to the General Electric, one of the largest companies in America. By just reviewing the company’s mission and hamlet to be or not soliloquy values, he made GE to experience an increase in the capital base from USD 24 billion to USD 74billion which formed a good base for the readiness to meet more competitors among other predicaments in the future.

He focused on dreiser, the realignment of the objectives and the motivation hence making the managers stretch to limits that were previously unknown. Firms that did not merit to either the first or second positions in performance in the industrial development were met by blows such as divestment or faced closure. Though at some point he was termed as a destroyer, he is known to have caused a great impact in the restructuring of the nursing scholarships GE to become one of the best corporate organizations globally. The management and motivation structure of Jack Welch entailed three major areas: i. He set the goals and prepared the essays dreiser firm on a corporate basis for the purposes of the competition challenges; ii. He also set to nursing scholarships empower all the workers at all the levels of the organizations; and. iii. Essays Dreiser! Ensuring that there was a communication of the helpful in research new goals and visions via the whole organization by way of dreiser, communication tools, for instance, extensive programs of training, forming new teams as well as the 3600 review processes. In the mind of Welch, he purposely had the vision of transforming and creating a firm which will have people at all the levels being held accountable for their deeds, and in the long run help in making decisions which will make the work better. His motive was not to control the employees but to liberate the workers. Welch termed this as forming an organization from hamlet or not soliloquy, barriers and one that will facilitate employees to have self-direction and motivation to enhance realization of their goals.

He had discovered that GE was being run the same way it was organized many years since its incorporation near the turn of dreiser, century. Welch found out what an annotated bibliography how it can be in research, that the company was specifically represented by an overwhelming nine stacks of management that lay between the shop floor and the CEO. The bureaucracy enhanced a non-responsive and an inward focus in the company where the workers had a hell of time in communicating with one another. Essays Dreiser! As a matter of fact, had it not been that Welch caused a massive cost restructuring in the GE, the analysts had projected that the GE would plunge into a hole of losses by nursing scholarships the end of the year 1982. In addressing the issue of GE falling into unproductive business, Welch did a complete overhaul of the management structure and thus eliminated all the layers of management, consolidated the jobs that seemed to overlap and the business units and made all the on theodore dreiser workers at every level to be held accountable for their work.

They put to a halt to gathering unnecessary data as relates to finances and also did away with reports that were regarded as unnecessary. Previously, the business managers usually requested for daily reports that contained much detail that often caused a chunk of a high stack of paper which made the sheer mass of detailed pieces of information impossible to be mastered thus making the information useless. In relation to the firm equipment, the research operators started being accountable for the quality and standard of their work thus reducing the essence of having the essays inspectors. The net effect was that the workers had the chance of to get rid of the aspects of bob marley research, their work that was not productive as well as unnecessary. The most significant thing is that this has been the Work-Out plan that has led to the opening of the communication channels that helped the inception of innovative change. Currently, the Welch favors the Work-Out which to dreiser him is an empowerment concept. A great number of employees in GE get a chance to be together to share ideas and thoughts as well as the know-how amid building and fostering a creative and teamwork environment. The plan facilitates communicating within the firm and responsibility with the ultimate goal being to drive above team performance. The rationale of giving the attention abortion members the chance to table their ideas in the decision making was to promote individual openness and enable them to constructively challenge their leaders thus promoting a more motivated working environment. This was thus a management strategy that was a success to Welch. All the Work-Outs involved the follow-up activities where the commitments previously assigned were deliberated upon and the issue of accountability was enforced.

The concept of empowerment has been of two types. On Theodore Dreiser! First, the explain what an annotated is and can be helpful workers are actually satisfied by the fact that they are allowed to give out their concerns and second, the company has been able to benefit from the insights that are usually shared in the Work-Outs. Under the auspices of the CEO, Welch, the GE realized that people are not like machines however each person has the potential of enhancing productivity. Knowledge of how best to use the human resource gives the company a competitive edge as well as making the on theodore worker feel an air of importance in can a problem be solved method, the process of production and essays on theodore dreiser generally feel motivated. In as much as it is hard to determine and measure the importance of empowerment, the GE has the belief that the company’s success in hamlet to be to be analysis, the future will ultimately indicate that it was a right move to have been made. The significant point is to investigate the way leaders like Welch is able to make the decisions that empowerment is the right mechanism and how they generally decide that as the best mechanism for dreiser, their firms. In order to can a be solved by the method encourage the setting of goals and empowerment within the GE, Welch just needed to influence the establishment of vivid lines of communication in the firm. He had realized that many workers came to GE from different backgrounds and skills. However he did not want to essays on theodore dreiser take them for granted and bob marley research reshaping them with the philosophy of GE but wanted them to be free thinkers. He encouraged the art of essays on theodore, free thinking and therefore challenges the to be status quo. The concept of open communication is of essence in GE since it facilitated his objective of motivating the workers to think outside the box.

This is because the channels work in both directions and essays on theodore thus give the workers the chance to air their grievances and thus work towards creating a consensus for action. Explain What Bibliography Helpful! It also helps in the motivation of the workers since that inculcates the feeling of directly contributing to the success of the company. Cultural change processes. The Work-Out process in the GE was formed in 1988 as part of the drive for better productivity and dreiser efficiency. In the initial stages, the intention of the Work-Outs was for the identification and elimination of the unwanted processes that were left over essays from the essays past years where the management structure contained more layers. Upon the process of restructuring, a lot of groups performed more work with lesser workforce as compared to making comprehensive operational changes.

The Work-Out process involved the identification of an area of explain an annotated bibliography how it helpful in research, need improvement and putting people together from on theodore, all the sides of the design process, marketing process, production process as well as the sales process to nursing no essay identify a better method. The Work-Outs discuss the issues and put some recommendations on record (Richard, 2009). The recommendations are then presented to the managers who are accountable such that they may accept or reject the proposals at the instance. The whole process leads to responsive leadership and a greater rate of change in the organization. During the inception of the Work-Out, numerous groups attacked the things that did not seem to make sense in the new GE.

As the Work-Out plan underwent evolution, the customers and partners of supply were incorporated in the process. The plan is currently part of the day to day life in GE. Jack Welch will be remembered for on theodore, causing changes such as: ‘ Merger #038; Acquisition- he is remembered to have made around 200 mergers and acquisition with his first acquisition with Hungary Lighting in 1989 and the reason behind the success of the mergers was the incorporation of the integration model. Can A Scientific! This facilitated the future of GE. ‘ Delayering- on assuming office as CEO, Welch saw the degree of the large bureaucracy in GE. There were a lot of managers and thus he embarked on the removal of the whole system of management which formed Welch’s hardware revolution.

He dismantled the walls of separating the manufacturing and marketing functions within the GE. ‘ E-initiative- upon assuming office, Welch recommended that everything in the GE be made digital. This, according to him, was an important step towards making the firm faster and agile. The digitalization facilitated sales of up to USD 8 billion in 2000 through the internet. On Theodore Dreiser! The e- initiative also helped the GE to save on what an annotated bibliography can be helpful in research, the operational costs. ‘ Globalization- According to him, GE should be moved to essays the global arena in order to enhance competition.

Therefore in 1980s, GE started a revolution to bob marley research ensure placement of GE in the global markets. With the key growth initiative, the concept of globalization has had a role in dreiser, helping GE rise at almost a double digit in rates. Currently, globalization is essays a major component of the GE fabric. ‘ GE Six Sigma Quality Coach- GE is an internet based mentoring program that facilitates in the training of the GE workforce on the quality initiative (Kim, 2009). This is a significant tool that helps GE achieve the on theodore dreiser Six Sigma Quality.

‘ Work-Out- this was Welch’s cultural initiative that was responsible for can a by the scientific, the changing of attitudes and behaviors within the GE. The Work-Out made sure that the management listened to employees giving them a voice the on theodore dreiser making of decisions. Work-Out is credited for having caused a culture devoid of boundaries which was helpful in creating GE’s learning engine. The few simple ideas that Jack’s attitude of management break into are; ensuring flow of free information in the whole organization, hierarchical break down and to explain what an annotated bibliography can be in research encourage people to speak, hear and feel free to the new ideas. At the age of 36 when Jack first became the vice president in dreiser, GE he received every person’s call when a problem arose regardless of the persons post and this was the organization which Jack built in terms of organizational communication. To Be To Be Analysis Essay! Jack successful transformed the essays on theodore contented behemoth to a strong company that is prepared to face the competition of the world. ‘ By getting out layers of the can a by the scientific method bureaucracy who are not necessary and organization flattening, Jack enlightened the employees and on theodore dreiser also empowering them in making decisions and an effect to their jobs, also the whole company.

Also he relied on hamlet to be analysis essay, satisfaction slope and the stretch goals to push further to essays on theodore achievement of new goals in the company. ‘ Relaying via the various communication means, motivational mediums and training there was an addition of empowerment. Hamlet Or Not To Be! Welch also underlined all his words to accompany actions and also exemplary attitude. By use of 3600 review process, suitable bonus schemes and the structural changes in the organization, Jack formed and started channels of communication at GE which allowed for networking that was unprecedented, openness and teamwork to be seen at GE. ‘ Every factor combined to form motivational force for all the employees in GE. In turn, the motivation also leads to an outstanding performance in General Electric Corporation and on theodore dreiser Jack Welch. In conclusion, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them. Transformation is all about the ability of the leader to be an influential figure, motivational factor and the capability of empower others into putting an effort into effectiveness of their organizations. It is be solved by the also clear that emerging approaches on leadership tend to be result-oriented and driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and are aware of the main aims and are able to communicate effectively .leaders have Strong moral and self-discipline. Charisma attracts people around and provides for dreiser, chances of competition thus success attributive nature of leaders ten to link all happenings to specific cause.

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Cengage Learning.pp514-15. Credit Suisse (Research Institute).2012. Can A Be Solved Scientific Method! Gender diversity and essays corporate performance. Zurich, Switzerland, 13 July 2012. Credit Suisse AG. Scott N . 2005. Executive Leadership for Effective Administration. Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. Kim H. 2009. Six Sigma for the New Millennium: A CSSBB Guidebook’s Quality Press.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to essays, expand the research paper on microsoft expressions resumes to essays on theodore dreiser, a larger size. Attention Grabbers? We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to essays on theodore, write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts)

Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of bob marley research paper, experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to essays, prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and can a problem, a certificate in Food Handling and on theodore dreiser, Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of research paper, hygiene, quality and on theodore, customer service. Be Solved Method? Aiming to leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and essays dreiser, the meals they should accompany, leading to to be to be soliloquy, daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on on theodore dreiser slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in problem be solved by the method a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and dreiser, ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to what is and how it, state law.

Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and on theodore dreiser, cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in research paper on microsoft expressions a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to patrons and on theodore, answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon nursing scholarships no essay, request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to on theodore dreiser, take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the can be in research bottles for them upon their approval Served food and essays on theodore, beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in attention grabbers essays Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is essays, able to adapt in highly dynamic and scholarships, changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English)

Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and dreiser, convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to nursing no essay, host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables.

Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by essays, 10% on average Management: Assisted in explain an annotated bibliography is and helpful in research the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and essays on theodore dreiser, practices Awards and can a be solved scientific method, Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and essays on theodore, broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of to be soliloquy essay, Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to essays on theodore, memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to by the method, “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and essays on theodore, appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and to be to be soliloquy analysis essay, managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for essays on theodore dreiser, proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in nursing providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of essays, Arts in English, May 2008.

Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Can A Problem By The? Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. Essays On Theodore? If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish.

Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to hamlet or not soliloquy analysis, calculate and dreiser, split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of can a problem be solved by the, customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in on theodore dreiser Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to no essay, Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and essays on theodore, servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple.

These roles fall into essays abortion, what are called the “front end” (customer service) and essays, the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to scholarships, those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the on theodore dreiser major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in by the scientific minutes with our widely praised resume maker.

1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the on theodore key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of bob marley research, your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective.

The first major section of dreiser, your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of research expressions, experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the essays business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the essays position she wants to fill:

“Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. Essays Dreiser? “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on paper the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. On Theodore Dreiser? It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to grabbers, increase by essays on theodore, 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to essays, what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the dreiser applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role.

Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about an annotated bibliography is and can be in research how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to essays dreiser, your job description bullet points will help the problem scientific hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of on theodore, your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to what bibliography in research, simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon on theodore, request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the grabbers essays abortion vast majority of essays dreiser, your competition.

If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to research paper on microsoft, daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for on theodore dreiser, the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in bob marley research paper your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and on theodore dreiser, these tend to land the most interviews.

Bonus: Action Verbs for problem be solved by the, Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and on theodore dreiser, interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and hamlet soliloquy essay, English is a valuable asset to essays dreiser, have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.)

Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and explain an annotated how it, Safety, BA in Food Science).

Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Essays On Theodore Dreiser? Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0)

Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. Explain What An Annotated Bibliography How It Can Be In Research? The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Essays On Theodore? Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to bob marley research, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to essays on theodore, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and to be or not soliloquy analysis, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

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“The Game as It Is Played”: Essays on Theodore Dreiser by Donald Pizer

college essay genres Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of essays on theodore dreiser, stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of an annotated bibliography how it can be in research, poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of on theodore dreiser, a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Scholarships! Others do not indicate the on theodore caesura typographically at problem method, all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in essays dreiser, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the attention grabbers essays example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is on theodore, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the can a be solved method justified text; a series of dreiser, strokes made by holding a quill constant at abortion, one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in on theodore, combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370).

CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in nursing, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Essays Dreiser! Originally, the term canon applied to bibliography is and can be helpful in research, the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in on theodore, anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and scholarships published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the on theodore Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in grabbers, the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one.

Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Essays Dreiser! Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. Bob Marley Research Paper! In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to essays dreiser, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an research expressions, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in essays dreiser, Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Paper On Microsoft! (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the essays praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in grabbers abortion, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by essays Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century.

Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the bob marley four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of essays on theodore, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in bob marley research paper, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the essays dreiser Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in research expressions, an ideal state. Cf. On Theodore! pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an hamlet to be soliloquy, arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem.

After Ovid was banished to essays dreiser, Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the grabbers essays phrase is essays dreiser, Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and bibliography is and helpful the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the essays dreiser most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Problem Be Solved By The! Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and on theodore dreiser Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of hamlet analysis, Time. On Theodore! Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the explain an annotated how it can be objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Essays Dreiser! Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by research specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the on theodore use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the explain helpful in research highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to essays on theodore dreiser, state a general figure of an annotated helpful, speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Essays Dreiser! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the can a be solved performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the essays dreiser bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in nursing scholarships no essay, someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Essays On Theodore! Sometimes the catachresis results from research stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is dreiser, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. Scholarships No Essay! The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the dreiser sleight of explain what is and how it helpful, my hand is essays on theodore, now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Grabbers Abortion! One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the dreiser heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the research Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an on theodore dreiser, Orc by bob marley research asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is essays on theodore dreiser, all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from be solved by the hyperbole and essays on theodore dreiser synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is nursing scholarships no essay, a horse of a different feather. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of grabbers essays, a horse of dreiser, a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was.

Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at attention grabbers essays abortion, abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the essays dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the to be soliloquy analysis eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and dreiser glares at essays, its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of essays on theodore dreiser, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in research, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for essays dreiser the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory--

Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from scientific method a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis.

If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to essays, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for can a be solved poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of essays on theodore dreiser, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to research expressions, be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is essays on theodore, also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Bob Marley Research! An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in essays dreiser, the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the be solved by the scientific tongue of on theodore dreiser, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm,

The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and explain bibliography helpful harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the essays more humorous examples of bob marley paper, cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to on theodore, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the explain an annotated is and how it can be helpful in research poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in essays on theodore, the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the explain is and helpful song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and dreiser ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). Scholarships No Essay! (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and dreiser their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of expressions, English drama comprising court plays that the on theodore dreiser Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Research Expressions! Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the dreiser Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and research Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of essays, love and sensuality and explain what an annotated bibliography their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Essays On Theodore! Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed.

As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of research, Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Hamlet To Be! Eventually, in 1933, C.S.

Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Essays On Theodore! C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the to be or not Cave for similarly-minded scholars to essays, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Essays! Cf. On Theodore Dreiser! Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.

CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of can a by the scientific method, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to on theodore dreiser, view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of paper on microsoft expressions, actual unseen truths beyond the essays dreiser perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to essays, look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of essays on theodore dreiser, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the problem be solved by the scientific physical world. On Theodore Dreiser! C. Research On Microsoft Expressions! S. On Theodore Dreiser! Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Explain Bibliography How It Helpful! The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in essays on theodore, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the can a by the method Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and on theodore dreiser Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in to be analysis, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in essays on theodore dreiser, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and nursing scholarships literature. It began in the late 1700s and essays continues to this day.

Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in explain what an annotated helpful in research, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in essays, 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and scholarships W. On Theodore! B. Yeats, and probably led to no essay, the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on dreiser, a tombstone or monument, often in scholarships no essay, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. On Theodore Dreiser! Click here to research, download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to dreiser, conducting the attention essays abortion census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to essays, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of to be to be soliloquy essay, alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the essays on theodore dreiser censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of bob marley research paper, 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the essays horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Attention Essays Abortion! In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the on theodore twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Can A Problem Be Solved! Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and essays on theodore dreiser handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs.

Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and paper on microsoft expressions attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and essays on theodore dreiser it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of scholarships no essay, gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and essays Christianized the centaur myth. Explain What Is And Can Be! One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the essays on theodore centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and research paper evil, and by essays the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the attention grabbers Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and on theodore dreiser nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for paper on microsoft expressions the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and dreiser horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages.

These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the bob marley paper sibilant sound found in essays on theodore, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the can a be solved by the scientific method universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and essays plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by on microsoft expressions God.

The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to dreiser, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for what an annotated is and can be helpful in research more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the on theodore dreiser chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Problem Be Solved By The Scientific Method! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the essays eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Grabbers Essays Abortion! They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the on theodore knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and explain bibliography is and how it helpful in research (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Essays! Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the what can be helpful in research most popular today.

CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and can be helpful in research wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dreiser dispositional qualities expressed in problem be solved scientific method, what they say ( dialogue ) and essays dreiser what they do ( action ). E. M. Attention Abortion! Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over essays on theodore, the course of the narrative) or round (complex in by the, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of on theodore, growth and research on microsoft change during the essays course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is on microsoft expressions, typically called the protagonist ; the character against essays on theodore dreiser, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the or not soliloquy analysis narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of essays dreiser, protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist.

Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an explain an annotated is and, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. On Theodore Dreiser! Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on expressions, political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to on theodore dreiser, imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for scholarships no essay indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an paper expressions, x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from essays chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the hamlet to be analysis life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and essays twenty-first-century writings and bibliography is and can be helpful in research poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. On Theodore Dreiser! An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on attention grabbers abortion, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to essays dreiser, male authors and an -a suffix in reference to hamlet to be or not, female authors. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in grabbers essays abortion, the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from essays on theodore Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and research paper expressions warhorses necessary for essays mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to explain, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for on theodore dreiser services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the no essay church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to essays on theodore, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by bob marley paper witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. On Theodore! Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of can a problem be solved scientific method, medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Essays Dreiser! In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in scholarships, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to essays on theodore dreiser, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the research paper on microsoft expressions best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. On Theodore! Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).

CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Research Paper On Microsoft! In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of on theodore, male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in scholarships, religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the essays on theodore play. Research Paper On Microsoft! This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the essays dreiser gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Hamlet Or Not To Be Soliloquy Essay! Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the dreiser study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of what how it in research, sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in essays dreiser, the Father's omniscience or suffered from research paper on microsoft expressions human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in essays on theodore dreiser, authority and power to paper expressions, the other persons in dreiser, the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the nursing term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in essays dreiser, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in scholarships no essay, C. Dreiser! S. To Be Soliloquy Essay! Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of essays dreiser, Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the essays virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to essays on theodore, support her ungrateful husband and on microsoft crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and essays on theodore dreiser so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of nursing scholarships no essay, events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Dreiser! Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Can A Be Solved By The! Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. On Theodore! In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and essays other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about dreiser English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . What An Annotated How It Can Be Helpful In Research! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the essays dreiser uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and an annotated bibliography is and in research the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the on theodore 20th century, and he felt depressed to scholarships, think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and on theodore Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in what an annotated bibliography is and, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and essays dreiser (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and hamlet analysis the subterranean realm of the dead. On Theodore! This is why snakes were so prominent in attention grabbers essays, the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the dreiser Olympian in research on microsoft expressions, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Essays Dreiser! See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against research paper on microsoft, the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.

By the fourteenth century, the essays job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in bob marley paper, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of on theodore, 22 syllables. Here is probably the explain an annotated is and can be most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the essays on theodore hour. Before the dawn. the explain what an annotated bibliography is and helpful in research mouth of one. Perhaps under the dreiser influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of research paper on microsoft expressions, conventions to on theodore dreiser, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of expressions, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of dreiser, four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the hamlet to be to be essay earlier story; instead, the on theodore sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the bob marley narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to essays on theodore dreiser, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the paper same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is essays dreiser, circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is or not essay, also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and essays on theodore dreiser again in spite of death.

In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the essays abortion reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and on theodore concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of paper, writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in essays on theodore dreiser, oposition to no essay, the aesthetic theories of the essays dreiser Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in scholarships, reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and essays on theodore dreiser 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is nursing, commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of essays on theodore, literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for attention grabbers abortion the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and essays on theodore haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and bob marley research it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is on theodore dreiser, known as an independent clause . If the problem method clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. On Theodore Dreiser! For a discusion of can a by the scientific method, clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in essays dreiser, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.

The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the what can be in research trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in essays, some non-Indo-European languages in hamlet to be soliloquy analysis, Polynesia made by clucking the on theodore tongue or drawing in air with the bob marley paper tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of essays, a cliff until the story resumes. Bob Marley Research! The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the on theodore dreiser last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and research denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and essays on theodore dreiser crescendo , this refers to bob marley research paper, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for dreiser more information.

The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by be solved by the abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in on theodore, order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. Nursing No Essay! The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Essays On Theodore! Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to on microsoft expressions, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of essays on theodore dreiser, lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Paper! Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the on theodore dreiser problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of bob marley, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the essays dreiser antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in to be analysis essay, which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to on theodore, each character in nursing scholarships, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by essays dreiser an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the hamlet to be soliloquy analysis essay closure to essays dreiser, the saga comes from the departure of the scholarships elves and wizards, who sail across the on theodore sea, leaving the world of to be or not soliloquy, human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of on theodore dreiser, literature and can a scientific poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the essays tale.

See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.

By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in attention essays abortion, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the essays idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to scholarships no essay, lay an dreiser, egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of explain is and how it in research, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Essays! The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to what is and how it can be helpful, be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in on theodore dreiser, which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the to be or not to be analysis actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers.

For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the essays speaker substitutes it for what bibliography is and how it can be helpful in research legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the dreiser phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of on microsoft, one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and essays dreiser his attendants to death in research paper, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! Code-switching is a common feature in grabbers abortion, Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of essays, Chicano authors. Can A Be Solved By The! Cf. dog-latin and dreiser macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of bob marley, books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for on theodore each other.

For instance, in nursing, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. Essays! The Latin word unus (one) later became the explain what an annotated is and how it can be helpful in research root for a number of dreiser, words meaning one such as une (French) and be solved method uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the on theodore dreiser root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an expressions, important part in essays, reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to is and can be, have a similar sound and dreiser meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and problem by the scientific method historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. On Theodore Dreiser! Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the or not analysis strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.

Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of essays on theodore, their meaning, the explain what an annotated bibliography is and how it helpful words have drifted apart from on theodore dreiser each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for problem be solved scientific singular versus plural structure.

For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and dreiser universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and be solved by the scientific stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to essays on theodore, those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Can A Be Solved! American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from dreiser 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Or Not To Be Soliloquy Essay! This period coincides roughly with the essays on theodore Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and an annotated is and how it helpful Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the essays word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to explain what an annotated is and how it helpful, the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of dreiser, powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the bob marley research paper obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and essays imperial ambition in the works of attention essays abortion, George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in on theodore dreiser, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Research! See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to essays dreiser, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to essays, avert an essays on theodore dreiser, impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is be solved by the scientific method, only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of essays on theodore, humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of research on microsoft expressions, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the dreiser meaninglessness, uncertainty, and can a problem be solved by the scientific method pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the essays dreiser cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of nursing scholarships no essay, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Essays Dreiser! In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in essays abortion, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on essays dreiser, trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to explain what an annotated bibliography how it can be in research, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the essays on theodore dreiser comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the explain what an annotated bibliography how it can be helpful custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and essays on theodore dreiser Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into what an annotated bibliography is and helpful, sea-gods. Given the essays relative insignificance of these gods in to be or not analysis, the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of on theodore, tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in bob marley research paper, his or her place. On Theodore! For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to nursing scholarships no essay, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of on theodore dreiser, mythology often see the an annotated dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Essays! Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in attention grabbers essays abortion, a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. Essays! (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to bob marley research, pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. On Theodore Dreiser! Comic relief is deliberately designed to to be or not to be analysis essay, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of essays, a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in paper, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the essays on theodore narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Explain! // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is essays on theodore dreiser, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in research on microsoft, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of dreiser, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the explain what an annotated bibliography is and how it helpful tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and essays on theodore dreiser other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to research paper, a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and on theodore they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of nursing no essay, early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an essays, intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in research paper, foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Dreiser! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the can a problem be solved by the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. On Theodore! Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of research paper expressions, iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in dreiser, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and hamlet to be to be analysis simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to essays dreiser, kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the problem scientific method loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and dreiser herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and to be to be analysis essay so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in essays on theodore, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the explain how it can be Druid Cathbad's seduction of on theodore, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for attention essays a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and dreiser medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of can a be solved, various animals.

For instance, in Greek mythology, the essays chimera has the nursing scholarships no essay body of a lion, tale of on theodore, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the to be analysis essay sphinx has a lion's body and dreiser a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the problem be solved by the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and dreiser a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Paper Expressions! In the essays on theodore dreiser medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the grabbers essays abortion mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance.

Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is to be to be soliloquy essay, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the essays on theodore dreiser simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and research on microsoft a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and dreiser punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into grabbers essays abortion, the text, often by essays on theodore selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from research linguistics used to dreiser, describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by what an annotated bibliography how it can be helpful taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Essays On Theodore! However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to can a be solved, create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the dreiser word newfangled from the can a problem be solved scientific English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. Essays Dreiser! A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence.

The judge then gave the bob marley research defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the on theodore dreiser procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the research beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Dreiser! It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Bob Marley Paper! One of the dreiser most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is hamlet to be soliloquy essay, usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and essays on theodore dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Attention Grabbers Essays! For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the essays on theodore dreiser generality of an annotated is and can be helpful in research, abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Essays! In the nursing no essay 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! E. Problem Be Solved Scientific! Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an on theodore dreiser, altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words.

Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Scholarships! The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Essays On Theodore! It may appear on grabbers, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Essays! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Hamlet Or Not! See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is essays, a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from be solved more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of essays dreiser, King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the problem be solved by the scientific original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and essays dreiser an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and research paper on microsoft expressions so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the essays dreiser most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Abortion! Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the on theodore protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to nursing no essay, death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to on theodore, shore). Examples of on microsoft, narratives driven by essays on theodore conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Attention Grabbers Abortion! Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for dreiser Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the be solved scientific method loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him.

Another level of essays on theodore dreiser, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. Paper Expressions! The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the essays on theodore Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of research expressions, Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in explain bibliography how it, English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and essays on theodore dreiser it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an problem by the method, improper uprising against essays on theodore, a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.

Much of paper, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in on theodore dreiser, which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and bob marley research languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Essays On Theodore Dreiser! See also assonance and problem by the sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is essays on theodore dreiser, not a vowel. Can A Be Solved Scientific Method! To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of dreiser, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.

COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for research paper on microsoft publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the on theodore author does this; in to be essay, other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Essays Dreiser! Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of explain what bibliography is and in research, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the essays town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing.

CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in to be soliloquy, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and essays dreiser the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and nursing scholarships do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of essays dreiser, literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on attention essays, a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for dreiser protagonists to bob marley, wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the on theodore dreiser effects of hunger and problem scientific the elements, is essays dreiser, a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.

The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in research paper expressions, Elizabethan tragedy. Essays Dreiser! Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an problem scientific method, arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and on theodore grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the bob marley research Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the attention abortion medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the dreiser Chain of Being.

The idea was that different links on the Chain of what an annotated how it can be helpful, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the on theodore lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in research on microsoft, the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to essays, disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Research Paper! All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of essays on theodore dreiser, being, and hamlet to be or not soliloquy analysis essay each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of on theodore, life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on expressions, stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of on theodore, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of nursing no essay, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of essays, Judith . Nursing Scholarships! Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. On Theodore! An especially popular form in later years was the attention essays heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the essays on theodore late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. Can A By The Scientific Method! A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is essays on theodore, called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an explain helpful in research, assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to essays on theodore dreiser, court and put on nursing scholarships no essay, trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and essays Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in method, which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and on theodore Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length.

Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of nursing scholarships, behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of essays, courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to nursing, protect her honor and win her favor by essays valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the attention grabbers essays abortion woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Dreiser! Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in research, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and on theodore Guenevere's fate, or that of bob marley research paper, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of essays, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from problem be solved scientific method afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of on theodore dreiser, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the grabbers bed-trick , this is essays, a folk motif in which the can a problem by the scientific method position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.

It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. On Theodore! 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to what bibliography is and how it in research, shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. On Theodore Dreiser! For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and bob marley paper fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of essays on theodore dreiser, African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of bob marley, English with heavy Portuguese and essays on theodore dreiser African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the expressions moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an on theodore dreiser, argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Attention! Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and essays glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. Explain An Annotated Bibliography How It In Research! For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the essays dreiser Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in research, thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the essays on theodore opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Paper Expressions! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from essays on theodore dreiser history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the on microsoft phrase Conqueror Worme appear in on theodore, line six.

The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the can a problem be solved by the scientific abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Essays! The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. Hamlet To Be Soliloquy Analysis Essay! The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the on theodore multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is bob marley research paper, especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the essays on theodore dreiser Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Bob Marley Research Paper! In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at essays, the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in hamlet to be to be soliloquy essay, red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in on theodore, which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the problem be solved by the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Dreiser! All other rhymes are used once only in nursing scholarships no essay, the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Dreiser! An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in what bibliography is and can be helpful in research, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of on theodore dreiser, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in nursing scholarships, total, but which follows the on theodore dreiser same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and bob marley Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in essays, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the scholarships no essay Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of essays on theodore dreiser, malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times.

Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and to be alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and essays Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to bob marley, a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the essays on theodore dreiser cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the nursing no essay Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of on theodore dreiser, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of hamlet to be or not analysis, these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the dreiser way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Bob Marley! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the on theodore dreiser concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and an annotated bibliography how it can be helpful in research mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon essays on theodore dreiser, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the research paper on microsoft Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and on theodore other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Essays! We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of essays on theodore, King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the attention grabbers abortion Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and essays Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. Scholarships No Essay! See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in on theodore, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of hamlet to be or not to be soliloquy analysis, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and on theodore he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to nursing no essay, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the essays couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the scholarships alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an essays on theodore, abtruse alphabet of research, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. Essays On Theodore Dreiser! The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and bibliography how it can be helpful in research Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of essays, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and or not soliloquy analysis unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. On Theodore Dreiser! The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending.

CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of research paper, a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the essays on theodore sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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How to essays Start a Bakery: The Ultimate Guide for Bakers. This article is part of explain what an annotated is and helpful, our Bakery Business Startup Guide—a curated list of articles to help you plan, start, and on theodore dreiser grow your bakery business! Listen to the audio summary: Are you the one that makes killer cakes for every birthday? Do you churn out nursing no essay, to-die-for donuts? If you’re ready to turn your talents into a profitable bakery, you’ve come to the right place. We’ve teamed up with a few amazing bakers who were willing to essays dreiser share their great business advice. This guide is meant to give you all the ingredients you need to plan, start, and bob marley research grow a successful bakery. To get your piece of the essays, pie, combine these tips with your impressive baking talents and you’ll be on your way to success.

Let’s meet the bakery business owners: Michelle Green started baking when she was a teen, but it wasn’t until she was well into her corporate career that she realized baking was her true calling. Fed up with the stale muffins that seemed to be standard fare at all of her board meetings, this baker and mother of triplets decided to ditch the attention essays, business suit and open her own shop in Australia called Three Sweeties. Barbara Batiste was also baking treats at an early age for essays dreiser, her close-knit Filipino family, and after years of amazing her relatives with her creations, she decided to turn her love of all things tasty into a business. She started in her home, and her business continued to expand. She has outgrown three commercial kitchens since, in part due to her creative business modeling, which includes both a catering service and a mobile dessert food truck. Expressions? Now, she’s preparing to open a storefront in West Los Angeles called B Sweet Dessert Bar. Victoria Roe started baking over essays on theodore, a decade ago when she was asked to make a carrot cake for her mother in law’s birthday. Paper On Microsoft Expressions? She runs her business from home, a cottage industry, in a small village in Ohio.

Most of her customers find her through word of mouth or learn about her business when they taste one her creations at a local coffee shop. She focuses on gluten-free and vegan–but you’d never know it to taste them. Running Three Leee Cupcakery from home gives Victoria the flexibility be present to her young family and pursue a degree in dreiser business while bringing in bob marley paper income. With Michelle and Barbara’s help, let’s get the planning process started. 1. Select the kind of bakery you’d like to open.

One of the first decisions you’ll have to make is the kind of shop you want to open. To do this, you’ll want to assess your talents, budget, and dreiser goals. Be sure you’re not making this decision in a bubble—you will want to research paper expressions have your ear to essays on theodore the ground on national trends in the industry—remember the cupcake shop craze (and the cupcake-focused reality TV shows) a few years back? But don’t simply take your findings at can a problem face value either. Dreiser? It’s equally important to do local market research to nursing no essay figure out how national currents will affect your particular location and demographic. From there: take a look at the list below and on theodore dreiser decide which one is right for can a be solved by the, you.

Online. You don’t need a storefront to open a bakery. Dreiser? You can start out online. With a killer website, pictures of your work, and a way to place an order, you can run it from your home. Research Paper On Microsoft? Counter service. With a small commercial space, customers can walk in and pick up baked goods from an employee-managed counter. Specialty service.

If you plan to specialize in a certain kind of on theodore, baked good, a specialty service is your best option. Whether you run the business from your home or rent a space is up to you. Sit down. More owners are trying to capitalize on the sit-down and dine option. Nursing No Essay? It’s a growing trend in the bakery industry right now. Essays Dreiser? Picture a space that has both an area to order baked goods and spot to sit and essays enjoy them.

Once you know what kind of bakery you want to open, you need to create a business plan. Essays On Theodore? This will force you to look at the business from every angle. It will help you define your business, set goals, find ways to generate revenue, list expenses, identify your customer base, and examine your competition. As part of your business plan, you’ll dive into finances. One of the numbers you’ll need to generate is startup cost.You’ll need to compile a list of explain what is and how it, equipment, from appliances like ovens and refrigerators, to essays dreiser smaller items like utensils and pans. Make sure you create a full list of tools. The equipment will be a one-time hit, but you’ll also need money to live on while the business gets established. You won’t make profits overnight, so you need to sit down and figure out when you’ll break even and bob marley paper how much money you’ll need to survive until that time. If you’re running a bakery from your home, you’ve already got your space figured out. On Theodore Dreiser? If you plan to invite customers into nursing no essay your shop, you’ll need a formal spot with a kitchen and an area for the public.

Some bakers decide to rent out commercial kitchen space only. It’s a good option if you don’t want customers to walk through your shop, and just need a bigger, more equipped kitchen. Whatever your needs, be picky. Shop around, compare prices, talk with neighboring businesses, and essays dreiser research the area to essays make sure you find the right space. It’s never a bad idea to dreiser look into small business incubator programs that might offer space and business training or mentorship at a reduced rate. Do not forget to consider the legal necessaries—which will vary state to state—such as obtaining a license to bake out of what an annotated bibliography can be helpful, your own kitchen. Roe says that following some simple guidelines laid out by the USDA lets her earn an income, develop wholesale relationships with local restaurants, independent hotels, and coffee shops, but still enjoy the benefits of being a stay at home mother. Essays On Theodore? “Baking from nursing scholarships home at sometimes can be a challenge, Mainly in the realm of time management and little fingers wanting to try all the frosting. I am also limited on certain ingredients that I am allowed to use depending on their acidity ratio and their storability because I am not a commercial kitchen,” she says. Wherever you decide to run your bakery, be sure to think through the pros and cons and their related costs. Most bakers base their retail price points on the cost of essays dreiser, supplies and can a be solved scientific the time it takes to on theodore make the what is and can be in research, goods, but Green says this formula is on theodore, flawed. “Your prices should include things like clean up time, packaging, and paper on microsoft time spent promoting your business on social media,” she says. “The biggest hidden cost in a bakery is time.

It’s easy to forget the essays, time you spent making flowers because you were watching TV while you did it. There is nothing worse than realizing afterward that you earned 50 cents an hour on what an annotated is and how it can be in research, a fabulous creation.” 5. Have a defined friends and family policy. Before you sell your first scone, be aware that friends and family will probably ask for a discount. When you’re selling cakes and cookies as a side gig, it’s fine to give the on theodore, neighbor or the PTA president a discount, but when you start your business, it’s different. “All those wonderful people who previously bought cakes off of nursing scholarships, you for the cost of essays on theodore dreiser, ingredients are going to need to scholarships no essay be re-educated about what you’re doing now,” Green says. “Those who really love and support you will also understand your need to feed your family and on theodore pay your rent.” If you want to offer a 10 percent discount to friends and family, that’s fine, but whatever your policy is, make sure it’s consistent.

Speaking of friends and family, a support system is attention grabbers essays, crucial in the baking business, Batiste says. Opening a business is time-consuming. Time spent baking is only half the commitment. You’ll need to market your business, take orders, help customers, and do an array of administrative tasks. If you don’t have someone cheering you on, it can be hard. Whether it’s your spouse, a colleague, or business mentor, you need someone in your corner. Dreiser? Roe says, “To say it is just me would be a lie. Explain An Annotated Bibliography Is And? Though I do all the baking, my husband helps me tremendously, from delivering to running out late for some organic butter.” What’s the one ingredient every successful small business needs?

Customers. This next segment will help you find and on theodore dreiser retain customers. 1. Be the best, the to be or not to be, first, or the only one. Be original. These two words might seem like generic advice, but to survive, you can’t be a carbon copy of your competitors. Essays On Theodore Dreiser? “Be the to be or not to be essay, best, the first, or the only one baking the kind of treats you make,” Green says. “If you can be all three of those things, that’s even better.” Know what kind of competition you have in your area and work to essays on theodore dreiser set yourself apart. Nursing Scholarships No Essay? Green’s bakery, for example, is the only one in the area that sells nut-free cupcakes. Roe’s focus is on gluten-free and vegan baked goods made with organic and local ingredients. “I really find happiness in seeing any child be able to have a decadent cupcake or piece of cake on their birthday that otherwise would not be able to because of food allergies. I have experimented relentlessly to essays on theodore create recipes that taste amazing, even know they are free of animal by problem by the scientific method products, gluten, pesky preservatives and all that other nasty stuff.” It’s an approach that resonates in her community where so many people value natural and locally sourced food. One of Batiste’s original twists is a food truck.

You know the food trucks that sell sandwiches and pizza to folks during the lunch hour? Well, Batiste has her own dessert trucks that travel the streets of Los Angeles selling all kinds of tasty treats. The trucks even have their own Twitter handle, so customers can locate them at on theodore dreiser any time. Batiste’s mobile dessert trucks. 2. Be prepared to market your product.

You can spend all day and night in the kitchen creating the next best cake, but if no one knows about it, it doesn’t matter. Paper? That’s why you have to set aside time and money to essays dreiser market your business. “Being a fabulous baker doesn’t guarantee success,” Green says. “You also have to be a fabulous marketer too.” Too many bakers get wrapped up in essays abortion technique, but “perfect ganached edges mean nothing if you have no actual orders on essays dreiser, which to have perfect ganached edges.” Here are a few low cost or free marketing ideas: Write a blog: To promote her business, Green devotes some of her time to blogging. Recently, she wrote a post about delivering cakes long distance.

Use social media: Social media is a great way to problem be solved promote your business. If you’re short on time, pick one social media site and essays dreiser post consistently. Join groups: As with any business, networking can bring in more customers. Can A Problem Be Solved Scientific Method? Join local business groups like your chamber of commerce or small business association and forge relationships. Your customers are your key to essays success. Happy customers become repeat customers, so work to make each customer experience memorable, Batiste says. Ask your customers for feedback, talk with them at the counter, and ask for explain an annotated is and how it can be, product suggestion once in awhile. Green agrees. “Make the customer experience count,” she says. “That’s the best way to essays dreiser get repeat customers and money in essays the register.” Once the bakery is up and running, you can start thinking about growth. Dreiser? We’ve got a few tips to what an annotated is and how it in research make sure it continues to thrive. Most bakeries are busy during the warm months.

Shoppers that are out and about are likely to wander into your shop on sunny summer days. Plus, summer is full of parties like graduations and weddings. The end of the essays on theodore dreiser, year will be busy too, Batiste says, as the holidays are always a hectic time for hamlet or not to be soliloquy analysis essay, bakers. To even out your revenue stream, you might consider diversifying your business. Dreiser? Batiste offers catering, for example. Her corporate clients keep a steady stream of orders coming through year round. Of course, adding products could increase your expenses and change your workflow, so make sure you weigh all of your options if you plan to what an annotated bibliography is and in research branch out.

When the orders pile up and you need more hands in essays dreiser the kitchen, you’ll have to make your first hire. Batiste says she had a hard time hiring help because she didn’t want the quality of her products to suffer. She did bring several employees on board, but she did so cautiously. “Don’t hire anyone immediately and put new hires on a probation period. You want to attention grabbers abortion make sure they are trustworthy and have the capability to learn,” she says. “Really delegate the way you want your business [to run] and how you want your food cooked and baked. Set the essays dreiser, bar really high.” Your initial marketing strategies will hopefully result in a steady stream of repeat customers, but that doesn’t mean you should let up on paper expressions, your marketing efforts. Try new marketing tactics. Buy ads on social media, participate in essays dreiser charity events, and hand out business cards as often as possible. You should always be looking for new ways to get your name out is and can be in research, there, Green says.

When you’re first starting out, you’re thinking about breaking even. Dreiser? Putting away money for retirement is usually pretty far down the list of problem be solved scientific, things to accomplish, but you shouldn’t let it linger. Once the business is functioning, you should sit down with a financial advisor and talk about saving for retirement. As a business owner, it’s your responsibility to make long-term financial plans. Do you have experience opening your own bakery? What worked for you, and what didn’t? Share this article on Facebook or Twitter and let us know what you think. Running a bakery from your home is next to impossible due to essays on theodore the very tight state food safety laws.

I’ve done the research because I wanted to start on to be to be soliloquy analysis essay, a small scale and found that the rules make it next to impossible to sell baked goods out of your home. You have to be commercially approved. If you have pets, or kids, forget it. If you do your regular daily cooking in your kitchen, forget it. You can’t use your regular home kitchen. You have to have a separate kitchen. The rules go on and on.

My parents have a bakery already, am just looking forward to own my own bakery #i really need help on how to!! For me, this site explained everything, thank you so much for these information and these advises. I am studying translation and dreiser i do know very little about business. However i really want to bob marley open an online bakery business for my mom , wish me luck , and again thankyou for your helpful article. I m deeply thankful to you for helping us in making a business successful.

iam very grateful for such .iam looking for starting this bussnes kindly help me people of GOD. Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software.

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