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resume soa architect BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina. Network expertise tunisie. LCC - A Tech Mahindra Company. Telecom Infrastructure Engineer TI/CW. RF LTE Specialist. LTE OPTIMIZATION CONSULTANT. RF NETWORK PLANING AND OPTIMIZATION.

Solution Architect, SOA Architect, Integration specialist,Software Development Manager,Technical Consultant. Please log in to see contact information! Seeking a challenging management position in the Information Technology field with an opportunity for advancement where my education and work experience will have valuable application. I have more than 10 years of experience in software development and management for invitation to excellence Telecom and Banking industries with excellent local and global knowledge of the Telecom and essay on conscription in ww1 Banking industry markets. Education Background PhD Degree in baylor Computer Engineering , The George Washington University , USA , 2012. M.Sc. Degree in Computer Engineering, Kuwait University , Kuwait, 2007.

Thesis Offline Omni Font Arabic Optical Text Recognition System using Prolog Classification Technique. Telecom MBA , Informa Academy UK , November 2006. B.Sc. Degree in Computer Science , Al-Isra Private University, Amman-Jordan, 2000. C.G.A. Global Warming! 85% , Excellent , Honored Ranked the 1st upon graduates. Graduation Research Papers/ Projects Graduation Research Project Arabic OCR (Optical Character Recognition) System Program to recognize Machine-Printed Arabic Character written in C/Visual C++. New proposed method in invitation to excellence baylor Pattern Recognition Methodologies. The following are some key assignments/projects during my Master Degree study. FTP Program for altruism essays Windows Program to do file transfer between Network Clients using RPC (Remote Procedure Call), two versions are implemented in Java and VC++ languages.

Remote Bilingual Dictionary on essay, SMS An Implementation of SMPP (Short Message Peer-to-Peer) protocol version 3.4. Three tier application (Mobile Station - SMSC - Dictionary) is written to let any Mobile Station bound to the SMSC sends Arabic (or any defined language) word and gets its translated meaning into essay warming, English (or any defined language). Invitation Essay! It is showing the fast, whole cycle of baylor sending SMS and it is essay in ww1 easy to customize it for any purpose. Java/C++ are both used with LogicaCMG SMSC API. Automated Restaurant System A new proposal to automate most of the activities done in the restaurant environment was implemented introduced. IBM Rational Tools were used from day one of the project. The main focus was about to to excellence baylor, implement the fast food and obesity, Six Best Practices of Software Engineering process. RUP (Rational Unified Process) Model was implemented during all the project phases and essay several SW development and recrystallization engineering techniques were experienced. Learning Automata Technique for invitation essay WDM dynamic Grooming RWA A paper is cd cover essay introduced on invitation baylor, this subject.

A C program is developed for simulation and lab report getting numerical results to prove the theory. Company International Turnkey Systems (ITS) , Kuwait (http//www.its.ws) Department BSD - Products Architecture Integration, 2009 - Present. Reporting To Manager, Products Architecture Integration. Current Job Title Sr. Solution Architect. Acts as a focal point responsible for invitation baylor executing and supervising Project Architecture activities.

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Work closely with PM to define technical milestones and invitation essay architecture deliverables. Ensuring on-time delivery of solution architecture. For each project, the Sr. Fast Food Essay! SA leads the essay, Project Architecture Control Board (ACB) which includes members from inductive global, various project teams. Investigating and researching for solutions for to excellence essay baylor project related technical issues in coordination with Project Architects. Acts as the food restaurants and obesity essay, main contact of critical project architecture issues and be available to essay baylor, address questions from customer and internal team members. Communicate with Sr. Product Architect on recrystallization lab report, issues related to the project that require changes to the product(s). Following up with the to excellence, implementation team and update the recrystallization lab report, project architecture accordingly. Responsible for invitation to excellence essay communicating the solution architecture with customers and further technical issues.

Promoting team spirit and altruism essays mentoring team members. Department Marketing Department , 2008 - 2009. Reporting To Group Director , Marketing and Sales. Current Job Title Sr. Invitation Baylor! Product Manager Technology and Architecture. To define product's enhancements based on customer needs, industry trends, and business goals. To maintain coherence among product groups and coordinate all aspects of the business relating to the product line by essay conclusion, acting as a liaison with all relevant business units. To coordinate between Pre Sales, Sales and software development units to invitation to excellence essay baylor, ensure that technology plans are aligned to commercial expectations and perfect essay that capacity is in invitation to excellence essay baylor place to inductive essay, support needs. To ensure proper selection, constant review and to excellence updating of appropriate technologies so as to improve operating margins. To develop technology plans that will allow the business maintain a competitive edge and drive Customer revenues. To ensure technology capacity plans are aligned to on conscription in ww1, marketing forecasts (e.g. customers, traffic)

To support team to evaluate and select future network and IT technologies and invitation essay provide guidance to the CTO when making key technology decisions. To ensure customer satisfaction with quality of cd cover essay operations by ensuring Network IT technology is of high quality (e.g. processes supported, capacity) To participate in performing portions of invitation essay technology diagnosis and assessment activities (i.e., creating surveys, conducting interviews, collecting and comparing benchmark data) To work with common, relevant architecture frameworks and being able to use them in diagnosing and assessing architectures. Developing and implementing a company-wide go-to-market plan, working with all departments to execute it successfully. Analyzing potential partner relationships for the product. Reporting To Sr. Manager , Research Technology Group. Current Job Title Sr. System Researcher - acted as a Project Manager / Functional Technical Manager in recrystallization lab report some project implementations.

Corporate RT department identifies solutions for a specific problem in baylor the companys business domain on the corporate level. RT activities include extensive researches, analysis and altruism essays study of the current company products architectures and invitation essay baylor then apply changes based on latest technologies and software methodologies. My duties and responsibilities in RT department are bigger than the ones in perfect essay conclusion Development Group. Department Business Solution Department Development Group , 2000 - 2004. Job Title(s) Programmer , Application System Analyst , Sr. Application System Analyst , Technical Consultant. Reporting To Sr. To Excellence Essay Baylor! Manager , Development and Design Group.

Define product's enhancements based on customer needs, industry trends, and business goals. Assist the department Manager to set and altruism essays implement strategic decisions concerned with technical areas in Software Development activities within work area so as to ensure a smooth functioning of development activities. Coach the technical team in invitation essay baylor the development of the altruism essays, technical architecture. Lead and guide the invitation to excellence baylor, project developers for the assigned tasks during the project development and altruism essays implementation. Provide advice on invitation, information systems strategy, policy and management and service delivery. Confer with clients to identify and document requirements, conduct business and technical studies. Research, Evaluate and Study the latest technologies and software products in the IT market, conduct the POC (Prove of Concept) and essay prepare a Demo with a presentation.

Manage project resources and priorities tasks. Identify and invitation to excellence essay baylor communicate technical problems, processes and solutions. Define the internal development project scope and to prepare the project development schedules plans. Study business requirements and lab report define system functions to close requirement and application gaps. Model the existing system/modules processes against invitation to excellence essay the customer business processes. Ensure that all components of the technical architecture are properly integrated and altruism essays implemented. Participate in presales activities including demos, workshops, conferences and invitation to excellence proposals.

Participate in preparing the test cases and in system integration testing. Participate in preparing the application technical design documents and in product evaluation. Plan with projects manager and co-ordinate causality analysis resolution session and conclusion causality analysis resolution action follow up. Provide technical support and invitation to excellence technical quality control throughout all stages of the project. Co-ordinate vendor services related to inductive essay, technology selection and implementation. Verify that all architecture is following industry standards, and in stream with market directions. Maintain and update the lessons learnt to the development plans. Ensure adherence to ITS internal procedures regarding Development procedures and Quality. Accomplishments and Key Projects. 1. KFH SOA-based Contact Center - Phase II , 2008-2010. a. Role Product Architect , Team Lead.

b. Brief description Latest Technologies are used to build up new J2EE based contact center ( Ajax/JSF/Business Rule Engine , IFX gateway on ESB , Oracle SOA suite, BEA Weblogic , JBoss jBPM Workflow, XLS Engine ) 2. ITS UBS ( Universal Banking Solution) , 2007. a. Role Technical Consultant , Product Architect and Researcher. 3. Invitation Essay! Investcom Project , 2006. a. Role Technical Consultant. 4. Warid Telecom Contact Center Project Pakistan , 2005. a. Role Technical Consultant. 5. Inductive! Warid Telecom Bill Print Project Pakistan , 2005 , a. Role Product Founder/Architect , Project Manager. 6. Invitation To Excellence Essay Baylor! BKME (Bank of Kuwait Middle East) IVR solution , 2004. a. Role Technical Consultant. 7. Essay! KFH Kuwait Financial House Contact Center Phase I , 2003.

a. Role System Analyst and Team Leader. 8. TABS ZAIN DQS (Directory Inquiry System) ,2003. a. Role Product Developer Architect. 9. TABS E-Commerce for ZAIN ,2003. a. Role Back-end Product Developer. 10.

TABS Roaming Module (TAP 3.x) ,2003. a. Role , Product Developer Architect. 11. TABS UNIX Migration Project for LibanCell Labanon ,2003. a. Role , Product Developer , Product Implementation. 12.

ZAIN Bill Print Solution , 2002. a. Role Product Developer Architect. 13. TABS Charting Reporting Solution for ZAIN Telecom ,2001. b. To Excellence Baylor! Role Product Developer Architect.

BEA AquaLogic workshop , December 2007 , Dubai , UAE. PMP (Project Management Professional) , New Horizon , February 2007. Executive Business Presentation, IIR, UK , January 2007. Interviewing Skills for fast essay Managers , IIR , November 2006 , Bahrain. Oracle JDeveloper 10g and ADF Technical Workshop, Kuwait , April/2006. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Technical Workshop, Kuwait , April/2006. Motorola WiMax Workshop for to excellence baylor BSS/OSS , Workshop Training , Dubai ,Jan/2006. Emotional Intelligence By Dr. Othman Al-Khether, AL-Enma For Management Consultancy Training , Jan/2006 , Kuwait. Cisco ICM Multi-channel by Gary Chin , CCSI # 22529 , 13th to 17th June 2004 ,at Synergy Professional Services , Dubai , DIC , Knowledge Village. Business Intelligence Concepts By Qutub Siddiqui , 15-17 of inductive global March 2004 , ETC , Kuwait.

Programming in INOA - Corba 7 days at ITS ETC, Bahrain by Adrayn , Irland. TABS (Telecommunication Administration and baylor Billing System) Training By Maged Hassan, 05-15 JAN 2003, at ETC, ITS Kuwait. Technical Writing A Comprehensive Hands-On Introduction By Richard Chappell from conclusion, Learning Tree International - UK, On 19/12/2002, 2 weeks. SpeechPearl2000 Integration and Application Development by Jamal Borno from PHILIPS, Germany, 45 hours. Sept. To Excellence! 2002. ServicePATH Service Intelligence System Fundamentals by essay, Jean-Louis ,TRENDIUM ,USA at Kuwait on July 24 ,2002. Oracle Developer 6i Track , at the New Horizons Computer Learning Center , Kuwait , 27th April 2002 until 24th Jul 2002.

Broadvision Enterprise by Sally Charles ,USA , at ETC , Kuwait , 13-18 OCT 2001. One day training Interpersonal skills, held in ITS Kuwait. One day training on ISO procedures held in invitation ITS Kuwait. International Conferences and Seminars International Delegate , Oracle Open World Conference 2009 , USA. International Delegate Oracle PartnerNetwork Days (OPN) , 2008 , Netherlands. International Delegate 3GSM World Congress 2007 , Barcelona , Spain. International Delegate Oracle Telecom - The Telecommunications Roadshow 2006 Dubai , UAE. International Delegate GSM Africa 2005 conference , CapeTown , South Africa. Seminar Speaker Seminar Privacy Enhanced Systems Hippocratic Databases and P3P, http//www.cpe.kuniv.edu/prnews.htm , Kuwait University.

o AL-Isra Private University. Ranked first in the college of lab report science. Ranked first in the computer science department. o International Turnkey Systems (ITS) Employee Of The Year 2004. Knowledge and invitation to excellence essay Skills Programming Languages. o C/C++/ProC, SQL, PL/SQL , Java ( J2SE, J2ME, J2EE) ,HTML, WML, XML,WSDL,XUL, JSP,JSF, JavaScript, QBasic, Turbo Pascal, FORTRAN 77, Assembly, Prolog, Flex.

o UNIX/Linux , MS-DOS ,MS Windows , MAC OS X,TANDEM. o ORACLE 7.0/8/8i/9i/10g , Nonstop ODBC , TANDEM, Sybase , MS Access, SAP/MaxDB , TimesTen , MySQL , Mimer , Derby. o Apache Tomcat 4 Servlet/JSP container, Oracle9i/10g AS Containers for J2EE , IBM WebSphere , BEA Weblogic 8.x 9.x 10.x , Apache HTTP Server. Development Tools Frameworks. o IBM Rational Rose Enterprise Edition , IBM Rational Unified Process , IBM Rational RequistePro , IBM Rational Purify , IBM Rational Software Architect. o Oracle Forms/Reports Builder 5,6i,10g.

o MS Visual C++ v6.0. o Oracle DS (Developer Suite) 9.x /10g. o Oracle JDeveloper. o Oracle BI Beans , Oracle Toplink. o Oracle ADF ( Application Development Framework) o Oracle Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Suite. Oracle Business Rules. Oracle Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)

Oracle BPEL Process Manager. o BEA SOA Suite. BEA AquaLogic ESB. o JBoss jBPM ( Business Process Management) Technologies , Protocols Standards. o Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) o Oracle Service Delivery Platform (SDP) o SMPP (Short Message Peer-To-Peer) ver3.4.

o 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) o RPC , RMI ,SOAP, gSOAP, Web Services. o TAP (Transfer Account Protocol) 3.x. o WAP / GPRS / GPS / PTT (PushToTalk) o Bluetooth / Infrared / Wi-Fi / WiMax / UTMS. o RDF ( Resource Description Framework) and OWL ( Web Ontology Language ) o LDAP , IFX for banking (Interactive Financial eXchange) o IFX (Interactive Financial eXchange) , Active member of essay IFX forum ( Islamic Work Group Founder ) Key Application Tools. o S-Designor DataArchitect v5.0 (Data Logic Tool), TOAD (Database Tool) , OutsideView32 (TANDEM), JBuilder 5 , Apache ANT 1.6 , Forte Eclipse for Java , Hex workshop, Installshield for visual C++ o MS SourceSafe, SourceOffsite. o TAP Testing Toolkit. o STEVE TAP3 Editor. o MS-Office , FrontPage FTP, Telnet ,QVT .CRT. o Director 8 Flash4. o Nokia Application Development Suite (SDK) o SpeachPearl2000 (Speech Recognition) o Rational Suite Development Studio. o Dialogic CTC Server.

o CT ADE (Computer Telephony Application Development Environment) o GNU Octave, version 2.1.36 / MATLAB Toolbox. o AI (Artificial Intelligence) NN (Neural Networks). Personal Knowledge Skills. Excellent knowledge of System Analysis, Developing, Packaging and Quality Assurance. Excellent knowledge of latest Wireless Technologies (Bluetooth, InfraRed ,GPRS,EDGE ,3G ,Wi-Fi,WiMAX ) programming implementations. Excellent knowledge of Enterprise Security Solutions.

Excellent knowledge of Distributed Operating Systems. Excellent knowledge of developing software for mobile phones using J2ME (MIDlets). Excellent knowledge of program Debugging and Troubleshooting. Excellent Knowledge in GSM Roaming TAP standards processing. Excellent Knowledge in GSM GPRS rating and Billing issues. Excellent Knowledge of latest Internet Technologies and Protocols. Excellent knowledge of Pattern Recognition Systems ( Arabic English OCR Systems) Excellent knowledge of RPC, RMI and TCP/IP Network programming for both UNIX and Windows. Excellent knowledge of Computer Security and baylor Data Ciphering. (RSA, DEC)

Good knowledge of inductive global warming VIPP (Variable Data Intelligent PostScript Printware) language for Xerox Printing. Good knowledge of invitation System Arabization. Good knowledge of System Documentation. Good Presentation Communication skills. Task Time Management to meet dead lines. Ability to work under pressure long hours. Team Worker. Strong Self-Motivation and Leadership Personality. Ability to understand business drivers, convert these into technical solutions and sell the solution back to the customer with professionalism and enthusiasm. Ability to identify, analyze and essay in ww1 solve straightforward problems relevant to own activities. Languages Arabic Mother tongue, English Fluent.

? Supervising Project Architects and keep track of their daily activities. ? Responsible for the technical integrity of the solution and invitation essay ensuring that design is aligned to business. ? Analyze project requirements and communicate with internal and external stakeholders to ensure. common understanding of technical specifications. ? Attending project brainstorming sessions and all technical discussions related to recrystallization lab report, the architecture with. all stakeholders including customers.

? Responsible for building/maintaining the technical architecture document of the solution throughout. the project life cycle. ? Ensure that recommended architecture is in line with industry best practices and current technology. ? Work closely with PM to invitation essay baylor, define technical milestones and on conscription in ww1 architecture deliverables. Ensuring on-time. delivery of solution architecture. ? For each project, the to excellence essay, Sr. SA leads the Project Architecture Control Board (ACB) which includes.

members from essay conclusion, various project teams. ? Investigating and researching for solutions for project related technical issues in coordination with. ? Acts as the to excellence baylor, main contact of restaurants essay critical project architecture issues and be available to address questions. from customer and invitation to excellence baylor internal team members. ? Communicate with Sr. Product Architect on issues related to the project that require changes to cd cover essay, the. ? Following up with the implementation team and update the project architecture accordingly. ? Responsible for communicating the invitation baylor, solution architecture with customers and cd cover essay further technical issues.

? Promoting team spirit and mentoring team members.

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Invitation to excellence essay baylor

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essay on ww1 and invitation essay baylor ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. Recrystallization? And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Invitation To Excellence Baylor? They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.

Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Fast And Obesity? Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on to excellence essay baylor, Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on inductive, 4 August. German violation of essay baylor Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the essay in ww1 war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in invitation to excellence essay the past. They have sought instead to understand the food fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the baylor fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in cd cover essay the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in invitation 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of altruism essays Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the invitation to excellence threat to their prestige and perfect essay conclusion authority as protector of the to excellence baylor Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Perfect? But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to invitation, patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. And Obesity? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and baylor declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.

Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and cd cover essay decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.

Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Invitation Essay Baylor? Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in altruism essays a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of to excellence baylor European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by cd cover essay the Americans, were locked in invitation to excellence essay a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the cd cover essay war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an to excellence enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the essay conclusion German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the invitation to excellence baylor intelligence but also the strength of fast and obesity character to extricate himself from the ruin of to excellence essay his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the on conscription 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of to excellence essay baylor 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the essay Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of invitation to excellence France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and recrystallization lab report mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from invitation essay baylor, French and Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in in ww1 Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on essay, the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. Perfect Conclusion? The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to to excellence essay baylor, breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the perfect essay German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and invitation baylor infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the essay British line held in front of invitation Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in cd cover essay July. To Excellence? At the recrystallization lab report Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of baylor Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.

Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against warming, Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Invitation To Excellence Essay Baylor? Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.

By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on on conscription, the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the baylor Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to recrystallization, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the baylor Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at essay, a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by to excellence essay seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at essay conclusion, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of to excellence essay baylor purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and fast essay British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the essay baylor Serbs fought the Austrians and essay Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war.

The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the to excellence baylor French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and and obesity essay Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on essay, Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Essay? Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. Invitation To Excellence Essay Baylor? The British attempted to perfect, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to invitation essay baylor, break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Altruism Essays? The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to invitation baylor, surrender at and obesity essay, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

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The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the altruism essays Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and invitation essay baylor the Baltic. German resort to food essay, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of invitation to excellence coalition inhibited strategic independence.

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In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on to excellence, the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the restaurants German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to essay, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to perfect essay conclusion, its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by invitation essay baylor attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the conclusion strategy to his fellow countrymen.

The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by invitation essay the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of food defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of invitation essay their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the food restaurants and obesity slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the invitation to excellence essay baylor Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the recrystallization first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of invitation to excellence essay war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the altruism essays First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by invitation essay the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. Altruism Essays? It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and to excellence essay dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and cd cover essay well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to invitation essay baylor, front. The superior speed of the recrystallization locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the invitation baylor German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from inductive, two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on essay baylor, the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Inductive Global Warming? The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in invitation to excellence Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of recrystallization lab report a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to invitation to excellence essay, turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power.

They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in recrystallization the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into to excellence, the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the cd cover essay world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the invitation to excellence essay baylor 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for inductive warming, the first time to confront the invitation to excellence baylor reality of cd cover essay material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of to excellence northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.

During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the fast restaurants essay historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the invitation essay baylor Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.

The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Essay In Ww1? A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the baylor Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources.

Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. Essay Conclusion? He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to essay, arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for cd cover essay, defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. Invitation To Excellence Baylor? They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the cd cover essay war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.

By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Invitation To Excellence Essay? And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to essay, take the invitation essay baylor field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of warming 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from invitation baylor, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against cd cover essay, Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an to excellence baylor Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on essay conclusion, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. To Excellence Essay? This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. Global Warming? But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and to excellence control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of essay co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on invitation baylor, the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the cd cover essay product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority.

This allowed them to invitation essay baylor, demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to essay on conscription in ww1, work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for invitation essay, years at a time. Cd Cover Essay? Changes in essay administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.

But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Essay? The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Baylor? Victory would go to fast food essay, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to invitation, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to essay, say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of invitation pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of altruism essays education was artillery. And the essay mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the altruism essays open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to essay baylor, destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and cd cover essay difficult to protect. Invitation Essay? Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of perfect essay battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by to excellence an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to inductive essay, do, and to excellence essay paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. Cd Cover Essay? During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and essay baylor the sophisticated techniques of essay on conscription flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by invitation baylor actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to global, the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by essay maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Essay In Ww1? Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and invitation essay direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of global warming fire was especially effective in baylor trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. Recrystallization? High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the invitation baylor battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of essay supplies and essay reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of food restaurants and obesity 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on to excellence essay, attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to cd cover essay, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Invitation Essay Baylor? Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to conclusion, war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. To Excellence Baylor? In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of essay on conscription in ww1 crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the to excellence baylor German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the restaurants and obesity essay weakly armed British proved that they could always break into invitation to excellence essay, the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the food restaurants autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of invitation to excellence 'elastic defence in essay global depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into to excellence, the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by fast food restaurants essay the bulk of the German infantry and to excellence artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to altruism essays, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to to excellence, disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the essay warming momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in invitation essay the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and altruism essays the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from invitation to excellence essay, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the recrystallization demands were contradictory. Invitation To Excellence Essay Baylor? More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.

Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Perfect? They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. Baylor? 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and essay a small number of invitation baylor Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. In Ww1? And of to excellence essay course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and essay on conscription French were particularly successful in to excellence essay baylor mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to inductive warming, do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. To Excellence Essay Baylor? Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of recrystallization lab report Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.

In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of invitation to excellence essay baylor 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in warming German hands. Not only did the to excellence essay baylor French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and perfect justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of to excellence baylor adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to fast food restaurants and obesity essay, this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Invitation? British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.

Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by essay conclusion 1917. There were many strikes and to excellence essay baylor much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to altruism essays, produce a revolution and invitation to excellence baylor then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918.

The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for lab report, the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and invitation to excellence baylor arguably for women, but the essay working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the invitation to excellence baylor Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and perfect conclusion collapsed. They were replaced by a number of invitation essay weak and on conscription sometimes avaricious successor states.

Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by invitation essay baylor inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by essay conclusion the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in to excellence essay baylor imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. Altruism Essays? The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to to excellence essay baylor, go their own way. The stirrings of inductive essay global revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended.

In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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essay on the odyssey ODYSSEY ESSAY SAMPLES. TWO MORE ESSAYS below:. €śThe Development of Penelope in Homer€™s Odyssey €ť. €śThe Significance of Religion in The Odyssey €ť. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PENELOPE IN HOMER€™S ODYSSEY. The time of baylor ancient Greece seems like its own story in food another world, one nothing like our own. Invitation Essay! Powerful gods and cd cover essay, goddesses, brave warriors, mystical beings, and the mistreatment of women rule the invitation to excellence plot. Essay! Except that women have been overlooked in our world for centuries. The insignificance of women was a part of Greek life that is not majestic or ethereal.

In the epic poem The Odyssey by Homer, Penelope develops into her own character during a time where women are prized as possessions more than people. Homer makes Penelope into her own person and essay, not just an addition to cd cover essay her husband by his long absence and the troubles she must face on baylor her own through difficult times. Homer gives her qualities of loyalty, strength, and cunning to be able to altruism essays survive without a husband when all others think she should just take another. Penelope becomes like a character unlike many women in Greek times such as Agamemnon€™s wife, but similar to to excellence Circe and recrystallization lab report, Athena. She is turned into a woman of power by Homer. Odysseus reluctantly departs to go fight in the Trojan War, leaving behind his wife and new son, and ends up staying away for twenty years. Throughout every minute of it, Penelope remains more faithful to her husband than he is to her. She never submits to the whims of the suitors begging for invitation to excellence essay her hand in marriage and only finds ways to make them leave her, while he enjoys the company of Circe and Calypso. In a time where women are not praised for their minds but for their beauty, faithfulness for twenty years wins her a place as the highest form of women. Agamemnon compares her to his wife and praises her as being the €śmistress of her own heart,/ Penelope!€ť (XXIV.222-223) while his own wife €śthe adulteress,/ waited to cd cover essay stab her lord and invitation baylor, king€ť (XXIV.225-226). From these statements, Agamemnon concludes that €śthe very gods themselves will sing her story€ť (XXIV.221), claiming that faithfulness is the cd cover essay best quality a woman could have.

Penelope stays steadfast and alone through twenty years of her life, without a man by her side to see her through. Agamemnon€™s wife finds herself another man to rely on while her own husband is gone, succumbing to the urges of society and the social status of women at the time. Penelope is able to stay loyal to her husband even after twenty years. The two wives of to excellence essay baylor warriors are completely different, one fickle, and one faithful. Penelope is forced by the long absence of her husband to guide her to become strong and guarded so that she can live without Odysseus. Penelope is faced with challenges at home while Odysseus is away, challenges that without strength would be impossible to face every day. She is left with a son, not even two, to raise on her own, without the guidance of altruism essays a father figure in his life. Telemachus is father-less until he is twenty-one, an issue for Penelope because she cannot raise him as a man and king would, and the fate of her kingdom rests with him. In addition, once Odysseus€™ mother dies and essay baylor, Laertes goes to live alone, Penelope is left alone to rule Ithaca, no small task for a queen by herself.

There are also the suitors who claim Odysseus to be dead and ask for in ww1 her hand in marriage every day. They will not leave Penelope in peace and invitation to excellence, €śevery suitor swore to recrystallization lab report lie beside her€ť (I.115) but €śSpurn them she dare not€ť (I.295) in fear of evoking their wrath and therefore the destruction of her home and family. She must remain strong, never submitting to the demands of the suitors and never allowing her hatred of them to gain the upper hand. She must guard herself and her home from invitation to excellence baylor, their anger and of their insistence of Odysseus€™ death. If they begin to believe that he will never return, then there remains no reason to stay strong through such trying times. Penelope is similar to Circe in that they both can live and flourish without men in their lives. Circe disposes of any men who come to her island, and has made herself a woman to fear.

Penelope remains strong like Circe, but does not evoke fear in other€™s hearts. Altruism Essays! She has no wish to kill even the to excellence essay baylor men that plague her, only recrystallization, wishes that they would be gone. She never allows them to gain the upper hand over her life, but remains strong throughout. When Odysseus returns, Penelope cannot simply accept the invitation essay fact the he is who he says he after twenty years when so much is uncertain. Penelope feels that it would be best to test him to make sure that he tells the truth. Her cunning saves her from a possibility of being deeply wounded, which would have happened if she believed that the man before her was Odysseus, then finds out that he is not. As close as Penelope and Odysseus were before he left, the more painful it would have been to have him torn from her again. She tests him by cd cover essay, having him €śtried to the breaking point€ť (XXIII.206) by invitation essay baylor, suggesting that the inductive global warming bed he made with his own hands was no longer where he had left it. She also uses her wily wits to invitation stall the fast food restaurants and obesity essay suitors from forcing her into an unwanted marriage. Penelope claims that she must finish weaving a shroud for Odysseus€™ father before she can marry again, which the suitors readily agree to because of the piety of the work.

What the suitors are unaware of is that €śevery day she wove on the great loom--/ but every night by torchlight she unwove it€ť (II.112-113) so that she will never finish and have to marry one of the suitors. Invitation! Her trick works for three years, but when it fails, she finds a task for essay the suitors that none will be able to accomplish: the stringing of Odysseus€™ bow and to excellence essay baylor, firing an arrow through the holes in twelve axe heads. In the use of her cunning, Penelope is able to put off the cd cover essay efforts of the to excellence essay suitors for over three years, an impressive feat with men so persistent. Conclusion! Athena, the goddess of wisdom, appreciates Odysseus for invitation his cunning because it is similar to her own. Penelope€™s cunning is therefore also similar to Athena€™s. Both are female figures in a time of male rulings that use their shrewd skills to retain power. Penelope€™s ability to remain strong and faithful relies on her wits, which she realizes and takes advantage of.

Penelope is seen at first as a wife of a hero, and nothing more. She is known by cd cover essay, her husband, whose valiant deeds are known throughout the lands. As the essay baylor poem progresses, she begins to take shape of an important character with faith, strength, and wit, three valuable traits. Penelope develops into a person from a faceless being in food restaurants essay a time where women are valued for essay baylor their bodies. Altruism Essays! In the time of invitation to excellence ancient Greece, women were insignificant. Penelope€™s character proves that women can be important to recrystallization lab report a story and the development of to excellence essay a happy ending.

The Odyssey is an epic poem and a story full of captivating tales of heroism and bravery. Recrystallization! Without Penelope€™s strength, wisdom, and to excellence essay baylor, loyalty, Odysseus would have had nothing to come home to and the lab report story would have been a tragedy. With a happy ending readers think of the invitation to excellence essay wonders of quests and other worldly beings that make the plot exciting, but if Penelope had not stayed true the stories would have seemed to altruism essays tell only of death. The actions of a mere woman could change the whole story, a concept that in ancient Greece would be hard to grasp. ------------------------------------------------------------ The Significance of essay baylor Religion in The Odyssey. Religion has always been significant throughout history. Many people€™s lives or jobs are dedicated to religion, to god. For some, most everything they do revolves around their religion; they constantly think about how their god would judge their actions.

Homer€™s Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus€™s journey home, and how the gods affect this voyage. The Greek gods and the religion itself are very significant to the story. Altruism Essays! Whether it€™s deterring Odysseus on his journey home, helping him along, causing one to harm another, or causing two countries to go to war, the gods are ever-present and a critical aspect to the story. One way the gods play an important role is by acting as a hindrance for Odysseus. Invitation To Excellence Baylor! He must overcome many obstacles on his journey home, which would not be nearly as difficult or as much of an issue if not for recrystallization the interference of the gods. An example of this is invitation baylor, when Circe entraps Odysseus and his men with her irresistible offers of meat and bread, thus causing them to inductive essay global stay much longer then they intend to. While on Circe€™s island, Odysseus narrates, €śSo day by day we lingered, feasting long/ on roasts and wine, until a year grew fat€ť (X.516, 517). Invitation To Excellence Essay! Circe€™s offers are so enticing to Odysseus and his crew that they stay for too long, causing their trip to be delayed an entire year. She is one goddess that creates a hurdle Odysseus must leap over. Essay Conclusion! Another is Poseidon. Just as Odysseus is about to invitation to excellence reach his homeland of Ithaca, Poseidon says, €śStill I can give him a rough ride, and I will€ť (V.300).

He €śgives him a ride€ť by creating huge waves that destroy Odysseus€™s raft, thus deterring him even further. These are both instances in the story where gods are significant in that they act as obstacles for Odysseus to overcome. Although these hindrances are both trying, they represent only altruism essays, a tiny portion of the problems the gods cause him. These predicaments and challenges are what make the story; they create a sense of tension and resolve. Essay Baylor! Without the gods, this cycle wouldn€™t be present. Perfect Essay! This is why the gods€™ role in the Odyssey as obstacles is so important. Interestingly enough, the invitation baylor gods are also significant in the story for the exact opposite reason. Another way the gods play an important role in the story is by altruism essays, aiding Odysseus on his journey home. Athena is invitation essay, especially helpful in this way.

When Odysseus is battling the suitors to altruism essays regain control of his home, he is greatly outnumbered. Athena €śturns their shots, or all but two€ť (XXII.303). This action saves Odysseus€™s life, and helps him regain control of his home and family. The fact that when in need of assistance, he has a goddess looking after him is critical to the story; it enables him to fight battles, both literal and figurative, that he couldn€™t win on his own. Invitation Baylor! Knowing that Athena and other gods care about Odysseus and want to help him significantly changes the story. At times such as the aforementioned battle where Odysseus is so greatly outnumbered, he might be inclined to lose hope if not for the knowledge that Athena will be there for him. The help of the gods is also important just to counteract the actions of the gods who dislike Odysseus.

If he was only being hurt and not aided by the gods, his story would most likely end much sooner. The gods€™ aid is significant because frankly needs it. He would not be able to accomplish such great feats without their help, and would likely be finished off by the gods who do not wish him to return home. The Greek religion, particularly the belief that the gods control all aspects of life, is also very important. After thinking the essay global gods weren€™t on his side because the winds are blowing his ship the invitation wrong direction, Agamemnon believes that he must kill his own daughter as a sacrifice so that the gods will blow his ship towards Troy. Even though killing his child has no scientific relation or effect on the wind in any way, Agamemnon feels he must do so to please the gods so that his ship can sail. The author describes Agamemnon€™s decision: €śthis was terrible to all, but to her father (Agamemnon) it was hardly bearable€ť (Hamilton 261). Despite the lab report pain it causes him, pleasing the gods comes first. To Excellence Baylor! Hamilton continues, €śNevertheless he yielded€ť (Hamilton 261). The idea that his own daughter€™s life isn€™t as important as appealing to the gods seems awful when looked at through contemporary lenses. However, the gods and the idea of global warming religion causes people to value them higher than anything else in their life; including their loved ones.

People, like Agamemnon, feel that they have to invitation baylor do something so that the gods will give them what they want in return. The gods are significant in this way because their approval and satisfaction influences people€™s actions throughout the altruism essays story. Their religion is critical to their lives because it influences most everything they do. The gods are also significant because they can start or stop a fight on invitation to excellence essay baylor a whim, cause people to battle at will, and start an all-out war. At the end of the story, a fight between the mourning parents of the suitors and Odysseus and Laertes is fast and obesity, about to break out. Before it can really begin, Athena says, €ś€™Odysseus, master of land ways and sea ways,/command yourself. Essay! Call off this battle now,/or Zeus who views the essay conclusion wide world may be angry€™€ť (XXIV.607-609). Throughout The Odyssey, fights break out frequently, during which many lose their lives. The fact that Athena can stop a fight this easily makes one wonder why, if she and other gods posses this power, fighting is not ceased more often.

So many people die during war that whomever has the power to begin or end a war has the power to save or take away many, many lives. The gods play an important role in this way by choosing to to excellence baylor participate in war, or by choosing, as Athena did, to stop the fighting from cd cover essay, happening. It is to excellence essay, apparent how the gods are significant to the Odyssey. They make it the exciting, epic story that it is. Altruism Essays! Although the gods play a very different role in to excellence society today than they did during this time period, they are still just as significant.

Many people will still say that god is the single most important part of life today, an idea that was prominent throughout the and obesity essay Odyssey.